Triple‐Addition Assay Protocols for Detecting and Characterizing Modulators of Seven‐Transmembrane Receptors

C. David Weaver1

1 Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
Unit Number:   
DOI:  10.1002/9780470559277.ch110060
Online Posting Date:  September, 2011
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Abstract

The detection and characterization of seven‐transmembrane‐receptor modulators (orthosteric binding site agonists, antagonists, and more recently allosteric modulators) is an area of intense interest for both drug discovery and basic research. Traditionally, assays used to detect and characterize these different modes of modulation have been executed as separate, discrete protocols focused on a particular mode of action (e.g., agonism). In recent years, investigators have begun to combine aspects of these separate protocols to produce methods that detect multiple modes of modulation simultaneously. The power of such approaches is revealed not only in conservation of time and resources, but more importantly in a superior ability to discover and characterize novel modulators of the targets of interest. The protocols in this article describe a general procedure for developing, validating, and utilizing triple‐addition assays to enable the simultaneous detection and characterization of multiple modes of seven‐transmembrane‐receptor modulation. Curr. Protoc. Chem. Biol. 3:119‐140 © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: seven‐transmembrane receptor; G‐protein‐coupled receptor; agonist; potentiator; antagonist; allosteric; fluorescence; high‐throughput screening

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Strategic Planning
  • Basic Protocol 1: Measurement of Seven‐Transmembrane Receptor Activity Using a Triple‐Addition Assay
  • Basic Protocol 2: Signal Uniformity Validation for High‐Throughput Screening for Modulators of Seven‐Transmembrane Receptors Using a Triple‐Addition Assay
  • Basic Protocol 3: High‐Throughput Screening for Modulators of Seven‐Transmembrane Receptors Using a Triple‐Addition Assay
  • Basic Protocol 4: Measurement of Concentration‐Response Relationships for Modulators of Seven‐Transmembrane Receptors Using a Triple‐Addition Assay
  • Alternate Protocols
  • Reagents and Solutions
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Measurement of Seven‐Transmembrane Receptor Activity Using a Triple‐Addition Assay

  Materials
  • Cells expressing the seven‐transmembrane receptor of interest (e.g., mGlu5‐expressing HEK‐293 cells), e.g., in a T175 tissue culture flask
  • Cell plating medium (see recipe)
  • Dye loading solution (see recipe)
  • Seven‐transmembrane‐receptor agonist (e.g., l‐glutamic acid, Tocris, cat. no. 0218; see recipe)
  • Assay buffer (e.g., 20 mM HEPES‐buffered HBSS, pH 7.3; see recipe)
  • Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
  • 10‐ml Pasteur pipets
  • Black‐walled, clear‐bottom, poly‐D‐lysine‐coated 384‐well plates (e.g., Becton Dickinson, cat. no. 356936)
  • Multichannel electronic pipettor (e.g., Biohit, cat. no. 73036X; optional)
  • Humidified, 37°C, 5% CO 2 cell culture incubator
  • 384‐well polypropylene compound plates (e.g., Greiner, cat. no. 781280)
  • Kinetic imaging plate reader (e.g., Hamamatsu FDSS 6000)
  • Spreadsheet software (e.g., Excel 2010, Microsoft, with XLfit add‐in, IDBS)
  • Additional reagents and equipment for counting cells with a hemacytometer and trypan blue exclusion (e.g., Phelan et al., )
NOTE: All steps are performed at room temperature with medium that has been prewarmed to room temperature.

Basic Protocol 2: Signal Uniformity Validation for High‐Throughput Screening for Modulators of Seven‐Transmembrane Receptors Using a Triple‐Addition Assay

  • Control compounds, if available (e.g., mGluR5 potentiator VU 1545, Tocris, cat. no. 3325; mGluR5 antagonist MPEP hydrochloride, Tocris, cat. no. 1212)
  • Collection of compounds to be screened
  • Means of transferring test compounds from source plates to daughter plates: e.g., a contact‐based liquid handler (e.g., Bravo, Agilent) equipped with a pin tool (VP Scientific) or an acoustic liquid transfer device (e.g., Echo 550, Labcyte)
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

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Internet Resources
   http://www.ncgc.nih.gov/guidance/manual_toc.html
  NIH Chemical Genomics Center Assay Guidance Manual. This manual provides an overview of a wide variety of high‐throughput screening methods.
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