In Vivo Delivery of Nanoparticles into Plant Leaves

Honghong Wu1, Israel Santana1, Joshua Dansie1, Juan P. Giraldo1

1 Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
Unit Number:   
DOI:  10.1002/cpch.29
Online Posting Date:  December, 2017
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Abstract

Plant nanobiotechnology is an interdisciplinary field at the interface of nanotechnology and plant biology that aims to utilize nanomaterials as tools to study, augment or impart novel plant functions. The delivery of nanoparticles to plants in vivo is a key initial step to investigate plant nanoparticle interactions and the impact of nanoparticles on plant function. Quantum dots are smaller than plant cell wall pores, have versatile surface chemistry, bright fluorescence and do not photobleach, making them ideal for the study of nanoparticle uptake, transport, and distribution in plants by widely available confocal microscopy tools. Herein, we describe three different methods for quantum dot delivery into leaves of living plants: leaf lamina infiltration, whole shoot vacuum infiltration, and root to leaf translocation. These methods can be potentially extended to other nanoparticles, including nanosensors and drug delivery nanoparticles. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: confocal imaging; leaf infiltration; nanoparticle delivery; root to leaf translocation; vacuum infiltration; quantum dots

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Basic Protocol 1: Synthesis and Characterization of Thioglycolic Acid (TGA) Wrapped Quantum Dots
  • Basic Protocol 2: Infiltration of TGA‐Quantum Dots Through Leaf Lamina
  • Basic Protocol 3: TGA‐Quantum Dot Delivery to Leaves Via Vacuum Infiltration
  • Basic Protocol 4: Root‐To‐Leaf Delivery of TGA‐Quantum Dots
  • Basic Protocol 5: In Vivo Imaging of TGA‐Quantum Dots in Plant Leaves by Confocal Imaging
  • Reagents and Solutions
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Synthesis and Characterization of Thioglycolic Acid (TGA) Wrapped Quantum Dots

  Materials
  • Sodium borohydride (NaBH 4; 96%, Sigma‐Aldrich)
  • Tellurium powder (Te; 99.8%, Sigma‐Aldrich)
  • Ethanol 100 proof (Sigma‐Aldrich)
  • Molecular biology water (Corning, cat. no. 46‐000‐CM)
  • Nitrogen gas
  • Cadmium chloride hydrate (CdCl 2·2.5 H 2O; Sigma‐Aldrich)
  • Thioglycolic acid (TGA; 98%, TCI)
  • Sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH; Sigma‐Aldrich)
  • Two‐necked flasks
  • Hot plate and magnetic stirrer
  • 1‐ml syringe equipped with a 21‐G needle

Basic Protocol 2: Infiltration of TGA‐Quantum Dots Through Leaf Lamina

  Materials
  • Sunshine LC1 mix soil
  • Tap water
  • Wild‐type Arabidopsis (Col‐0) seeds
  • Deionized water
  • QD stock solution (see protocol 1 for the preparation)
  • Magnesium chloride (MgCl 2; Sigma‐Aldrich, cat. no. M8266)
  • 2‐[(2‐Hydroxy‐1,1‐bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (TES; Sigma‐Aldrich, cat. no. T1375)
  • 32 insert sheets disposable pots (2 × 2 in.)
  • 1020 greenhouse trays without holes (11 × 21.37 × 2.44 inch W/L/D)
  • Forceps
  • Adaptis 1000 growth chambers (Conviron)
  • 1‐ml sterile needleless syringe (NORM‐JECT®)
  • Kimwipes (Kimtech Science®)
  • Permanent marker (Sharpie, fine point)

Basic Protocol 3: TGA‐Quantum Dot Delivery to Leaves Via Vacuum Infiltration

  Materials
  • Arabidopsis seedlings, aged four weeks (see protocol 2)
  • 5.18 nM Cd/Te Cd/S thioglycolic acid quantum dot (TGA‐QD) solution
  • 2‐[(2‐Hydroxy‐1,1‐bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (TES; Sigma, cat. no. T1375)
  • Industrial cling film
  • Tape
  • Sonicator (Elmasonic P)
  • 5‐ml syringes
  • 20‐nm pore‐size syringe filter (AnotopTM 25, WhatmanTM)
  • 50‐ml Falcon tube
  • 50‐ml beaker with ventilation hole
  • Vacuum desiccator (BelArt, cat. no. F42400‐2021)
  • Kimwipes
  • Growth chamber

Basic Protocol 4: Root‐To‐Leaf Delivery of TGA‐Quantum Dots

  Materials
  • Arabidopsis thaliana seeds
  • 50% bleach solution
  • 70% ethanol
  • ddH 2O
  • Murashige and Skoog basal salt mixture (MS) medium (Sigma)
  • Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
  • Phytoagar (Bioworld)
  • TGA‐capped QD solution
  • KCl (Sigma‐Aldrich)
  • 1.5‐ml microcentrifuge tubes (Thermo Fisher)
  • Vortex mixer
  • Aluminum foil, optional
  • 85‐mm petri plates (Thermo Fisher)
  • 500‐ml bottles
  • Autoclave (Amsco® lab 110, STERIS Life Science)
  • Laminar flow hood (NuAire, cat. no. NU‐201‐530)
  • 200‐μl pipettes
  • Micropore tape (3M)
  • Growth chamber
  • 20‐nm pore‐size syringe filter (AnotopTM 25, WhatmanTM)
  • Forceps, sterilized

Basic Protocol 5: In Vivo Imaging of TGA‐Quantum Dots in Plant Leaves by Confocal Imaging

  Materials
  • Plants incubated with TGA‐QD (see protocol 2)
  • Observation gel (Carolina)
  • Perfluorodecalin (PFD; Sigma)
  • Cork borers
  • Glass slides (Corning, cat. no. 2948‐75X25)
  • Glass Pasteur pipet and rubber bulb (Fisher, cat. nos. 13‐678‐20C and 03‐448‐22)
  • Coverslip (VWR, cat. no. 48366 045)
  • Argon 488‐nm laser
  • Zeiss confocal microscope imaging system (Zeiss 510)
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

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