Quantitative Flow Cytometry Measurements in Antibodies Bound per Cell Based on a CD4 Reference

Lili Wang1, Heba Degheidy2, Fatima Abbasi2, Howard Mostowski2, Gerald Marti3, Steven Bauer2, Robert A. Hoffman4, Adolfas K. Gaigalas1

1 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland, 2 Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, 3 Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, 4 Consultant, Livermore, California
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Cytometry
Unit Number:  Unit 1.29
DOI:  10.1002/0471142956.cy0129s75
Online Posting Date:  January, 2016
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Abstract

Multicolor flow cytometer assays with fluorescently labeled antibodies are routinely used in clinical laboratories to measure the cell number of specific immunophenotypes and to estimate expression levels of specific receptors/antigens either on the cell surface or intracellularly. The cell number and specific receptors/antigens serve as biomarkers for pathological conditions at various stages of a disease. Existing methods and cell reference materials for quantitative expression measurements have not yet produced results that are of wide clinical interest or are instrument‚Äźindependent across all fluorescence channels. This unit details a procedure for quantifying surface and intracellular biomarkers by calibrating the output of a multicolor flow cytometer in units of antibody bound per cell (ABC). The procedure includes (1) quality control of the flow cytometer, (2) fluorescence intensity calibration using hard dyed microspheres assigned with fluorescence intensity values, (3) compensation for fluorescence spillover between adjacent fluorescence channels, and (4) application of a biological reference calibrator to establish an ABC scale. The unit also points out current efforts for quantifying biomarkers in a manner that is independent of instrument platforms and reagent differences. ¬© 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: multicolor flow cytometry; fluorescence calibration; equivalent number of reference fluorophores (ERF); CD4+ lymphocytes; antibody bound per cell (ABC)

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Basic Protocol 1: Staining Cells for Quantification of CD20
  • Basic Protocol 2: Quality Control, Calibration, and Instrument Compensation
  • Basic Protocol 3: Quantification of CD20 in Units of ABC
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Staining Cells for Quantification of CD20

  Materials
  • Freshly drawn whole blood from a normal healthy individual
  • 1× phosphate‐buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4 (Life Technologies, cat. no. 10010‐023)
  • Fetal bovine serum (FBS; Sigma‐Aldrich)
  • Fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies (BD Biosciences):
    • CD4 APC (SK3 clone, cat. no. 340443)
    • CD4 PerCP‐Cy5.5 (SK3 clone, cat. no. 341654)
    • CD4 FITC (SK3 clone, cat. no. 340133)
    • CD4 PE‐Cy7 (SK3 clone, cat. no. 348789)
    • CD4 V450 (SK3 clone, cat. no. 651850)
    • CD20 APC (L27 clone, cat. no. 340941)
    • CD20 PerCP‐Cy5.5 (L27 clone, cat. no. 340955)
    • CD45 FITC (cat. no. 555482)
    • CD3 V450 (cat. no. 560365)
    • CD19 PE‐Cy7 (cat. no. 560728)
  • Lysing solution, fixative‐free (Life Technologies, cat. no. HYL‐250)
  • 1% (w/v) paraformaldehyde (Electron Microscopy Sciences) in 1× PBS
  • Cyto‐Trol control cell kit (Beckman Coulter), including reconstitution buffer
  • Disposable 12 × 75−mm polystyrene Falcon tubes (BD Biosciences)
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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