Overview of Nucleic Acid Analysis

Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz1, Gloria Juan1

1 New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Cytometry
Unit Number:  Unit 7.1
DOI:  10.1002/0471142956.cy0701s00
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
GO TO THE FULL TEXT: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library


This unit discusses the general applicability of nucleic‐acid analytical methods in both basic and clinical research. After immunophenotyping, analysis of nucleic acids is perhaps the most common application of flow cytometry. The methodologies are of particular interest for researchers in basic and clinical oncology, as they provide information on cell attributes associated with tumor malignancy, and are widely used in various areas of cell and molecular biology.

PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Table of Contents

  • Literature Cited
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library


PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library



Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Barlogie, B., Raber, M.N., Schumann, J., Johnson, T.S., Drewinko, B., Schwartzendruber, D.E., Goehde, W., Andreeff, M., and Freireich, E.J. 1983. Flow cytometry in clinical cancer research. Cancer Res. 43:3982‐3997.
   Bauer, K.D., Bagwell, C.B., Giaretti, W., Melamed, M.R., Zarbo, R.J., Witzig, T.E., and Rabinovitch, P.S. 1993. Consensus review of the clinical utility of DNA flow cytometry in colorectal cancer. Cytometry 14:486‐491.
   Begg, A.C., McNally, N.J., Shrieve, D.C., and Karcher, H. 1985. A method to measure the duration of DNA synthesis and the potential doubling time from a single sample. Cytometry 6:620‐626.
   Cooper, D., Schermer, A., and Sun, T.‐T. 1985. Classification of human epithelia and their neoplasms using monoclonal antibodies to keratin: Strategies, applications, and limitations. Lab. Invest. 52:243‐256.
   Crissman, H.A. and Steinkamp, J.A. 1987. A new method for rapid and sensitive detection of bromodeoxyuridine in DNA‐replicating cells. Exp. Cell Res. 173:256‐261.
   Crissman, H.A., Oishi, N., and Habbersett, R. 1990. Detection of BrdU‐labeled cells by differential fluorescence analysis of DNA fluorochromes: Pulse‐chase and continuous labeling methods. Methods Cell Biol. 41:341‐349.
   Darzynkiewicz, Z. 1988. Cellular RNA content, a feature correlated with cell kinetics and tumor prognosis. Leukemia 2:777‐787.
   Darzynkiewicz, Z., Traganos, F., Sharpless, T., and Melamed, M.R. 1975. Thermal denaturation of DNA in situ as studied by acridine orange staining and automated cytofluorometry. Exp. Cell Res. 90:411‐422.
   Darzynkiewicz, Z., Traganos, F., Sharpless, T., and Melamed, M.R. 1976. Lymphocyte stimulation: A rapid multiparameter analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:2881‐2884.
   Darzynkiewicz, Z., Andreeff, M., Traganos, F., and Melamed, M.R. 1978. Discrimination of cycling and noncycling lymphocytes by BudR‐suppressed acridine orange fluorescence in a flow cytometric system. Exp. Cell Res. 115:31‐35.
   Darzynkiewicz, Z., Traganos, F., and Melamed, M.R. 1980. New cell cycle compartments identified by flow cytometry. Cytometry 1:98‐108.
   Dolbeare, F., Gratzner, H., Pallavicini, M., and Gray, J.W. 1983. Flow cytometric measurement of total DNA content and incorporated bromodeoxyuridine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:5573‐5577.
   Dolbeare, F. and Selden, J.R. 1990. Immunochemical quantitation of bromodeoxyuridine:Application to cell‐cycle kinetics. Methods Cell Biol. 41:297‐316.
   Duque, R.E., Andreeff, M., Braylan, R.C., Diamond, L.W., and Peiper, S.C. 1993. Consensus review of the clinical utility of DNA flow cytometry in neoplastichematopathology. Cytometry 14:492‐496.
   Evenson, D.P., Darzynkiewicz, Z., and Melamed, M.R. 1980. Relation of mammalian sperm chromatin heterogeneity to fertility. Science 210:1131‐1133.
   Gong, J., Traganos, F., and Darzynkiewicz, Z. 1994. A selective procedure for DNA extraction from apoptotic cells applicable for gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Anal. Biochem. 218:314‐319.
   Gorczyca, W., Bruno, S., Darzynkiewicz, R.J., Gong, J., and Darzynkiewicz, Z. 1992. DNA strand breaks occurring during apoptosis: Their early in situ detection by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase and nick translation assays and prevention by serine protease inhibitors. Int. J. Oncol. 1:639‐648.
   Gratzner, H.G. 1982. Monoclonal antibody to 5‐bromo‐ and 5‐iododeoxyuridine: A new reagent for detection of DNA replication. Science 218:474‐475.
   Hall, P.A., Levison, D.A., and Wright, N.A. (eds.) 1992. Assessment of Cell Proliferation in Clinical Diagnosis. Springer‐Verlag, London.
   Hedley, D., Clark, G.M., Cornelisse, C.J., Killander, D., Kute, T., and Merkel, D. 1993. Consensus review of the clinical utility of DNA cytometry in carcinoma of the breast. Cytometry 14:482‐485.
   Hiddeman, W., Schuman, J., Andreeff, M., Barlogie, B., Herman, C.J., Leif, R.C., Mayall, B.H., Murphy, R.F., and Sandberg, A.A. 1984. Convention on nomenclature for DNA cytometry. Cytometry 5:445‐446.
   Latt, S.A. 1973. Microfluorimetric detection of deoxyribonucleic acid replication in human metaphase chromosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70:3395‐3399.
   Li, X. and Darzynkiewicz, Z. 1995. Labeling DNA strand breaks with BrdUTP. Detection of apoptosis and cell proliferation. Cell Proliferation 28:571‐579.
   Li, X., Melamed, M.R., and Darzynkiewicz, Z. 1996. Detection of apoptosis and DNA replication by differential labeling of DNA strand breaks with fluorochromes of different color. Exp. Cell Res. 222:28‐37.
   Poot, M., Hoehn, H., Kubbies, M., Grossman, A., Chen, Y., and Rabinovitch, P.S. 1990. Cell‐cycle analysis using continuous bromodeoxyuridine labeling and Hoechst‐33358–ethidium bromide bivariate flow cytometry. Methods Cell Biol. 41:327‐340.
   Shankey, T.V., Kallionieni, O.‐P., Koslowski, J.M., Lieber, M.L., Mayall, B.H., Miller, G., and Smith, G.J. 1993a. Consensus review of the clinical utility of DNA content cytometry in prostate cancer. Cytometry 14:497‐500.
   Shankey, T.V., Rabinovitch, P.S., Bagwell, B., Bauer, K.D., Duque, R.E., Hedley, D.W., Mayall, B.H., and Wheeless, L. 1993b. Guidelines for implementation of clinical cytometry. Cytometry 14:472‐477.
   Shapiro, H.M. 1981. Flow cytometric estimation of DNA and RNA content in intact cells stained with Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y. Cytometry 2:143‐150.
   Wheeless, L.L., Badalament, R.A., de Vere White, R.W., Fradet, Y., and Tribukait, B. 1993. Consensus review of the clinical utility of DNA cytometry in bladder cancer. Cytometry 14:478‐481.
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library