Approaches to Spectral Imaging Hardware

Jeremy M. Lerner1, Nahum Gat2, Elliot Wachman3

1 LightForm, Inc., Asheville, North Carolina, 2 Opto‐Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI), Torrance, California, 3 ChromoDynamics, Inc., Lakewood, New Jersey
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Cytometry
Unit Number:  Unit 12.20
DOI:  10.1002/0471142956.cy1220s53
Online Posting Date:  July, 2010
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Abstract

Instruments used for spectral, multispectral, and hyperspectral imaging in the biosciences have evolved significantly over the last 15 years. However, very few are calibrated and have had their performance validated. Now that spectral imaging systems are appearing in clinics and pathology laboratories, there is a growing need for calibration and validation according to universal standards. In addition, some systems produce spectral artifacts that, at the very least, challenge data integrity if left unrecognized. This unit includes a comparison of the band‐pass and light‐transmission characteristics of electronic tunable filters, interferometers, and wavelength‐dispersive spectral imaging instruments, as well as a description of how they work. Methods are described to test wavelength accuracy and perform radiometric calibration. A real‐life example of spectral artifacts is dissected in detail in order to show how to detect, diagnose, verify, and work around their presence when they cannot be eliminated. Curr. Protoc. Cytom. 53:12.20.1‐12.20.40. © 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: acousto optic tunable filter; liquid crystal tunable filter; imaging spectrometer; prism spectrometer; diffraction grating ghosts; diffraction grating spectrometer; holographic diffraction grating; ruled diffraction grating

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Spectral Imaging Basics
  • Wavelength‐Dispersive Spectral Imaging (WDSI)
  • “Need to Know” Diffraction Grating Characteristics
  • Electronic Tunable Filters (ETF)
  • System‐Based Light Throughput Considerations
  • Wavelength Detectors
  • Calibration, Validation, and Radiometry
  • Comparison of Spectral Imaging Systems
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contact Information
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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