Whole‐Genome Sequencing Analysis Using Next‐Generation Sequencing Data

Chi Kent Ho1, Xiaohui Cui1, Sharon Grubner1, Christopher A. Larson1, Ying Wei1, Paul K. Flook1

1 Illumina, Inc, San Diego, California
Publication Name:  Current Protocols Essential Laboratory Techniques
Unit Number:  Unit 11.5
DOI:  10.1002/cpet.2
Online Posting Date:  May, 2016
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Abstract

Next‐generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized the biosciences and become invaluable to the discovery of gene function and its involvement in disease conditions. The fast pace of innovation in NGS technologies has enabled the production of huge volumes of sequence data at progressively lower cost. However, the increasing throughput combined with the growing accessibility of these technologies poses significant challenges for downstream data analysis. Here, we provide an overview of NGS methods and key secondary analysis pipelines with a focus on technology provided by Illumina. As a case study, we highlight potential applications in cancer research. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: cloud computing; Next‐Generation Sequencing (NGS); tumor normal analysis; Whole‐Genome Sequencing (WGS); BaseSpace

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Overview and Principles
  • Strategic Questions
  • Strategic Planning
  • Protocols
  • Basic Protocol 1: Whole‐Genome Sequencing
  • Basic Protocol 2: Tumor‐Normal Analysis
  • Commentary
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Whole‐Genome Sequencing

  Materials
  • NGS data in FASTQ format: the recommended coverage depth for a Human Whole Genome Sequencing run is 30×
  • An Illumina BaseSpace account

Basic Protocol 2: Tumor‐Normal Analysis

  Materials
  • Tumor sample NGS data in FASTQ format (the recommended coverage is 80×)
  • Matched normal sample NGS data in FASTQ format (the recommended coverage is 40×)
  • An Illumina BaseSpace account
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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  Illumina. 2013a. An Introduction to Next‐Generation Sequencing Technology. Pub. No. 770‐2012‐008. Available at http://www.illumina.com/content/dam/illumina‐marketing/documents/products/illumina_sequencing_introduction.pdf.
  Illumina. 2013b. Cancer Analysis Services Guide. Available at http://support.illumina.com/content/dam/illumina‐support/documents/documentation/cancer_analysis/fasttrack‐cancer‐analysis‐services‐guide‐15040893‐01.pdf.
  Illumina. 2014a. BaseSpace User Guide. Available at http://support.illumina.com/content/dam/illumina‐support/documents/documentation/software_documentation/basespace/basespace‐user‐guide‐15044182‐e.pdf.
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Key References
  Raczy et al., 2013. See above.
  This is the original Isaac aligner and Isaac Variant Caller paper that explains the methodology and compares it with the BWA and GATK combination for alignment and variant calling.
Internet Resources
  https://github.com/sequencing/manta
  Manta User Guide (v0.18.1). 2014.
  http://www.illumina.com/content/dam/illumina‐marketing/documents/products/illumina_sequencing_introduction.pdf
  A general introduction to Illumina Sequencing By Synthesis (SBS) sequencing technology.
  http://www.illumina.com/techniques/sequencing.html
  A comprehensive overview of sequencing techniques, including RNA‐seq, DNA‐seq, and others.
  http://www.illumina.com/techniques/popular‐applications.html
  A look at some common applications of NGS including CNV detection, methylation detection, ChIP, and other techniques.
  https://basespace.illumina.com/datacentral
  A collection of public and example data housed within BaseSpace. A user can browse, search, or filter for specific types of public datasets. Once the dataset is found, a user can choose to import one or all of the datasets. Users may also choose to employ these data to test different applications or analyses within BaseSpace. These data are considered to be shared with the user, and all rules and restrictions apply accordingly.
  https://www.illumina.com/content/dam/illumina‐marketing/documents/products/datasheets/datasheet_ign_cancer_analysis.pdf
  A guide to Tumor‐Normal NGS analysis services from Illumina.
  http://www.illumina.com/platinumgenomes/
  Platinum Genomes is a collection of manually curated truth datasets that can be used to evaluate the quality of an analysis pipeline.
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