Practical Considerations When Altering Digital Images

Jerry Sedgewick1

1 Imaging and Analysis, Saint Paul
Publication Name:  Current Protocols Essential Laboratory Techniques
Unit Number:  Appendix 3B
DOI:  10.1002/cpet.11
Online Posting Date:  May, 2017
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Abstract

Worldwide, Adobe Photoshop is the primary means in research for altering images. Training on the use of this powerful tool most often is peer to peer within a laboratory, or it is self‐taught through trial and error. As a result, varying amounts of visual data can be removed unwittingly; contrast‐ and brightness‐enhancement of images can be done without adjusting color and grayscale levels to conform to the output (which includes publication, projection, Web placement, and inclusion into Microsoft Word and Adobe Acrobat); images can be unethically altered; and pixelation can be introduced. Correct methods for use of Adobe Photoshop are outlined in this unit so that these errors can be avoided. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: pixelation; sampling resolution; brightness; contrast; saturation; pixels; resampling; gamma; midtones

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Sampling Resolution
  • Resampling
  • Acquiring Images
  • Photoshop and Scientific Image–Analysis Programs
  • Optimizing the Display
  • Using Images from Vector Programs and PowerPoint
  • Altering Images Using Photoshop
  • Inserting Files into PowerPoint
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
  Armstrong, J.A. and Schulz, J.R. 2015. Agarose gel electrophoresis. Curr. Protoc. Essential Lab. Tech. 10:7.2.1‐7.2.22. doi: 10.1002/9780470089941.et0702s10.
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  Gallagher, S.R. 2012. SDS‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE). Curr. Protoc. Essential Lab. Tech. 6:7.3.1‐7.3.28.
  Gallagher, S.R. and Neuman, J. 2015. Ethical considerations when altering digital images. Curr. Protoc. Essential Lab. Tech. 11:A.3A.1‐A.3A.6. doi: 10.1002/9780470089941.eta03as11.
  Leong, F.J., Brady, M., and McGee, J.O. 2003. Correction of uneven illumination (vignetting) in digital microscopy images. J. Clin. Pathol. 56:619‐621.
  Margulis, D. 2006. Professional Photoshop: The Classic Guide to Color Correction, 5th ed. Peachpit Press, Berkeley, CA.
  Moomaw, B., Medberry, S., and Gallagher, S.M. 2014. Overview of digital electrophoresis analysis. Curr. Protoc. Essential Lab. Tech. 9:7.5.1‐7.5.31. doi: 10.1002/9780470089941.et0705s9.
  Sedgewick, J. 2010. Scientific Imaging with Photoshop: Methods, Measurement, and Output. Peachpit Press, Berkeley, Calif.
  Williams, M., Bozyczko‐Coyne, D., Dorsey, B. and Larsen, S. 2008. Laboratory Notebooks and Data Storage. Curr. Protoc. Essential Lab. Techniques. 00:A.2A.1‐A.2A.28. doi: 10.1002/9780470089941.eta02as00.
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