Nonhuman Primate Models for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development

Yongjun Sui1, Shari Gordon1, Genoveffa Franchini1, Jay A. Berzofsky1

1 These authors contributed equally
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Immunology
Unit Number:  Unit 12.14
DOI:  10.1002/0471142735.im1214s102
Online Posting Date:  October, 2013
GO TO THE FULL TEXT: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Abstract

The development of HIV vaccines has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that can accurately predict vaccine efficacy. Chimpanzees can be infected with HIV‐1 but are not practical for research. However, several species of macaques are susceptible to the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that cause disease in macaques, which also closely mimic HIV in humans. Thus, macaque‐SIV models of HIV infection have become a critical foundation for AIDS vaccine development. Here we examine the multiple variables and considerations that must be taken into account in order to use this nonhuman primate (NHP) model effectively. These include the species and subspecies of macaques, virus strain, dose and route of administration, and macaque genetics, including the major histocompatibility complex molecules that affect immune responses, and other virus restriction factors. We illustrate how these NHP models can be used to carry out studies of immune responses in mucosal and other tissues that could not easily be performed on human volunteers. Furthermore, macaques are an ideal model system to optimize adjuvants, test vaccine platforms, and identify correlates of protection that can advance the HIV vaccine field. We also illustrate techniques used to identify different macaque lymphocyte populations and review some poxvirus vaccine candidates that are in various stages of clinical trials. Understanding how to effectively use this valuable model will greatly increase the likelihood of finding a successful vaccine for HIV. Curr. Protoc. Immunol. 102:12.14.1‐12.14.30. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: vaccines; nonhuman primates; macaques; SIV; T cell immunity; animal models

     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Species of Macaques
  • Challenge Virus
  • Route, Mode, and Dose of Virus Infection
  • Vaccine Candidates
  • Acknowledgments
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Materials

GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
  Abimiku, A.G., Franchini, G., Tartaglia, J., Aldrich, K., Myagkikh, M., Markham, P.D., Chong, P., Klein, M., Kieny, M.‐P., Paoletti, E., Gallo, R.C., and Robert‐Guroff, M. 1995. HIV‐1 recombinant poxvirus vaccine induces cross‐protection against HIV‐2 challenge in rhesus macaques. Nat. Med. 1:321‐329.
  Agy, M.B., Frumkin, L.R., Corey, L., Coombs, R.W., Wolinsky, S.M., Koehler, J., Morton, W.R., and Katze, M.G. 1992. Infection of Macaca nemestrina by human immunodeficiency virus type‐1. Science 257:103‐106.
  Agy, M.B., Schmidt, A., Florey, M.J., Kennedy, B.J., Schaefer, G., Katze, M.G., Corey, L., Morton, W.R., and Bosch, M.L. 1997. Serial in vivo passage of HIV‐1 infection in Macaca nemestrina. Virology 238:336‐343.
  Akari, H., Mori, K., Terao, K., Otani, I., Fukasawa, M., Mukai, R., and Yoshikawa, Y. 1996. In vitro immortalization of Old World monkey T lymphocytes with Herpesvirus saimiri: Its susceptibility to infection with simian immunodeficiency viruses. Virology 218:382‐388.
  Amara, R.R., Villinger, F., Altman, J.D., Lydy, S.L., O'Neil, S.P., Staprans, S.I., Montefiori, D.C., Xu, Y., Herndon, J.G., Wyatt, L.S., Candido, M.A., Kozyr, N.L., Earl, P.L., Smith, J.M., Ma, H.‐L., Grimm, B.D., Hulsey, M.L., Miller, J., McClure, H.M., McNicholl, J.M., Moss, B., and Robinson, H.L. 2001. Control of a mucosal challenge and prevention of AIDS by a multiprotein DNA/MVA vaccine. Science 292:69‐74.
  Amara, R.R., Smith, J.M., Staprans, S.I., Montefiori, D.C., Villinger, F., Altman, J.D., O'Neil, S.P., Kozyr, N.L., Xu, Y., Wyatt, L.S., Earl, P.L., Herndon, J.G., McNicholl, J.M., McClure, H.M., Moss, B., and Robinson, H.L. 2002. Critical role for Env as well as Gag‐Pol in control of a simian‐human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P challenge by a DNA prime/recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine. J. Virol. 76:6138‐6146.
  Anderson, D.J. 2010. Finally, a macaque model for cell‐associated SIV/HIV vaginal transmission. J. Infect. Dis. 202:333‐336.
  Andersson, S., Mäkitalo, B., Thorstensson, R., Franchini, G., Tartaglia, J., Limbach, K., Paoletti, E., Putkonen, P., and Biberfeld, G. 1996. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 recombinant canarypox (ALVAC) vaccine candidate in cynomolgus monkeys. J. Infect. Dis. 174:977‐985.
  Andris, J.S., Miller, A.B., Abraham, S.R., Cunningham, S., Roubinet, F., Blancher, A., and Capra, J.D. 1997. Variable region gene segment utilization in rhesus monkey hybridomas producing human red blood cell‐specific antibodies: Predominance of the VH4 family but not VH4‐21 (V4‐34). Mol. Immunol. 34:237‐253.
  Baeten, J.M., Kahle, E., Lingappa, J.R., Coombs, R.W., Delany‐Moretlwe, S., Nakku‐Joloba, E., Mugo, N.R., Wald, A., Corey, L., Donnell, D., Campbell, M.S., Mullins, J.I., and Celum, C. 2011. Genital HIV‐1 RNA predicts risk of heterosexual HIV‐1 transmission. Sci. Trans. Med. 3:77ra29.
  Baroncelli, S., Negri, D.R.M., Michelini, Z., and Cara, A. 2008. Macaca mulatta, fascicularis and nemestrina in AIDS vaccine development. Exp. Rev. Vaccines 7:1419‐1434.
  Barouch, D.H., Liu, J., Li, H., Maxfield, L.F., Abbink, P., Lynch, D.M., Iampietro, M.J., SanMiguel, A., Seaman, M.S., Ferrari, G., Forthal, D.N., Ourmanov, I., Hirsch, V.M., Carville, A., Mansfield, K.G., Stablein, D., Pau, M.G., Schuitemaker, H., Sadoff, J.C., Billings, E.A., Rao, M., Robb, M.L., Kim, J.H., Marovich, M.A., Goudsmit, J., and Michael, N.L. 2012. Vaccine protection against acquisition of neutralization‐resistant SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys. Nature 482:89‐93.
  Barré‐Sinoussi, F., Chermann, J.C., Rey, F., Nugeyre, M.T., Chamaret, S., Gruest, J., Dauguet, C., Axler‐Blin, C., Vézinet‐Brun, F., Rouzioux, C., Rozenbaum, W., and Montagnier, L. 1983. Isolation of a T‐lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 220:868‐871.
  Belyakov, I.M., Kuznetsov, V.A., Kelsall, B., Klinman, D., Moniuszko, M., Lemon, M., Markham, P.D., Pal, P., Clements, J.D., Lewis, M.G., Strober, S., Franchini, G., and Berzofsky, J.A. 2006. Impact of vaccine‐induced mucosal high‐avidity CD8+ CTLs in delay of AIDS viral dissemination from mucosa. Blood 107:3258‐3264.
  Benson, J., Chougnet, C., Robert‐Guroff, M., Montefiori, D., Markham, P., Shearer, G., Gallo, R.C., Cranage, M., Paoletti, E., Limbach, K., Venzon, D., Tartaglia, J., and Franchini, G. 1998. Recombinant vaccine‐induced protection against the highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251: Dependence on route of challenge exposure. J. Virol. 72:4170‐4182.
  Bertley, F.M.N., Kozlowski, P.A., Wang, S.‐W., Chappelle, J., Patel, J., Sonuyi, O., Mazzara, G., Montefiori, D., Carville, A., Mansfield, K.G., and Aldovini, A. 2004. Control of simian/human immunodeficiency virus viremia and disease progression after IL‐2‐augmented DNA‐modified vaccinia virus Ankara nasal vaccination in nonhuman primates. J. Immunol. 172:3745‐3757.
  Bible, J.M., Howard, W., Robbins, H., and Dunn‐Walters, D.K. 2003. IGHV1, IGHV5 and IGHV7 subgroup genes in the Rhesus macaque. Immunogenetics 54:867‐873.
  Bomsel, M. 1997. Transcytosis of infectious human immunodeficiency virus across a tight human epithelial cell line barrier. Nat. Med. 3:42‐47.
  Borsetti, A., Baroncelli, S., Maggiorella, M.T., Bellino, S., Moretti, S., Sernicola, L., Belli, R., Ridolfi, B., Farcomeni, S., Negri, D.R.M., Cafaro, A., Ensoli, B., and Titti, F. 2008. Viral outcome of simian‐human immunodeficiency virus SHIV‐89.6P adapted to cynomolgus monkeys. Arch. Virol. 153:463‐472.
  Boyer, J.D., Ugen, K.E., Wang, B., Agadjanyan, M., Gilbert, L., Bagarazzi, M.L., Chattergoon, M., Frost, P., Javadian, A., Williams, W.V., Refaeli, Y., Ciccarelli, R.B., McCallus, D., Coney, L., and Weiner, D.B. 1997. Protection of chimpanzees from high‐dose heterologous HIV‐1 challenge by DNA vaccination. Nat. Med. 3:526‐532.
  Boyson, J.E., Shufflebotham, C., Cadavid, L.F., Urvater, J.A., Knapp, L.A., Hughes, A.L., and Watkins, D.I. 1996. The MHC class I genes of the rhesus monkey. The MHC class I genes of the rhesus monkey. Different evolutionary histories of MHC class I and II genes in primates. J. Immunol. 156:4656‐4665.
  Brennan, G., Kozyrev, Y., Kodama, T., and Hu, S.‐L. 2007. Novel TRIM5 isoforms expressed by Macaca nemestrina. J. Virol. 81:12210‐12217.
  Brennan, G., Kozyrev, Y., and Hu, S.‐L. 2008. TRIMCyp expression in Old World primates Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105:3569‐3574.
  Buchbinder, S.P., Mehrotra, D.V., Duerr, A., Fitzgerald, D.W., Mogg, R., Li, D., Gilbert, P.B., Lama, J.R., Marmor, M., del Rio, C., McElrath, M.J., Casimiro, D.R., Gottesdiener, K.M., Chodakewitz, J.A., Corey, L., and Robertson, M.N. 2008. Efficacy assessment of a cell‐mediated immunity HIV‐1 vaccine (the Step Study): A double‐blind, randomised, placebo‐controlled, test‐of‐concept trial. Lancet 372:1881‐1893.
  Burdo, T.H., Marcondes, M.C.G., Lanigan, C.M.S., Penedo, M.C.T., and Fox, H.S. 2005. Susceptibility of Chinese rhesus monkeys to SIV infection. AIDS 19:1704‐1706.
  Casimiro, D.R., Bett, A.J., Fu, T.‐m., Davies, M.‐E., Tang, A., Wilson, K.A., Chen, M., Long, R., McKelvey, T., Chastain, M., Gurunathan, S., Tartaglia, J., Emini, E.A., and Shiver, J. 2004. Heterologous human immunodeficiency virus type 1 priming‐boosting immunization strategies involving replication‐defective adenovirus and poxvirus vaccine vectors. J. Virol. 78:11434‐11438.
  Casimiro, D.R., Wang, F., Schleif, W.A., Liang, X., Zhang, Z.‐Q., Tobery, T.W., Davies, M.‐E., McDermott, A.B., O'Connor, D.H., Fridman, A., Bagchi, A., Tussey, L.G., Bett, A.J., Finnefrock, A.C., Fu, T.‐m., Tang, A., Wilson, K.A., Chen, M., Perry, H.C., Heidecker, G.J., Freed, D.C., Carella, A., Punt, K.S., Sykes, K.J., Huang, L., Ausensi, V.I., Bachinsky, M., Sadasivan‐Nair, U., Watkins, D.I., Emini, E.A., and Shiver, J.W. 2005. Attenuation of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 infection by prophylactic immunization with DNA and recombinant adenoviral vaccine vectors expressing Gag. J. Virol. 79:15547‐15555.
  Cohen, J. 2000. AIDS research. Vaccine studies stymied by shortage of animals. Science 287:959‐960.
  Cosma, A., Nagaraj, R., Bühler, S., Hinkula, J., Busch, D.H., Sutter, G., Goebel, F.D., and Erfle, V. 2003. Therapeutic vaccination with MVA‐HIV‐1 nef elicits Nef‐specific T‐helper cell responses in chronically HIV‐1 infected individuals. Vaccine 22:21‐29.
  Cox, J.H., Ferrari, M.G., Earl, P., Lane, J.R., Jagodzinski, L.L., Polonis, V.R., Kuta, E.G., Boyer, J.D., Ratto‐Kim, S., Eller, L.‐A., Pham, D.‐T., Hart, L., Montefiori, D., Ferrari, G., Parrish, S., Weiner, D.B., Moss, B., Kim, J.H., Birx, D., and VanCott, T.C. 2012. Inclusion of a CRF01_AE HIV envelope protein boost with a DNA/MVA prime‐boost vaccine: Impact on humoral and cellular immunogenicity and viral load reduction after SHIV‐E challenge. Vaccine 30:1830‐1840.
  Daniel, M.D., Letvin, N.L., King, N.W., Kannagi, M., Sehgal, P.K., Hunt, R.D., Kanki, P.J., Essex, M., and Desrosiers, R.C. 1985. Isolation of T‐cell tropic HTLV‐III‐like retrovirus from macaques. Science 228:1201‐1204.
  de Sorrentino, A.H., Marinic, K., Motta, P., Sorrentino, A., López, R., and Illiovich, E. 2000. HLA class I alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection among a population in Chaco Province, Argentina. J. Infect. Dis. 182:1523‐1526.
  Delaloye, J., Roger, T., Steiner‐Tardivel, Q.‐G., Le Roy, D., Knaup Reymond, M., Akira, S., Petrilli, V., Gomez, C.E., Perdiguero, B., Tschopp, J., Pantaleo, G., Esteban, M., and Calandra, T. 2009. Innate immune sensing of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is mediated by TLR2‐TLR6, MDA‐5 and the NALP3 inflammasome. PLoS Pathog. 5:e100480.
  Demberg, T., Florese, R.H., Heath, M.J., Larsen, K., Kalisz, I., Kalyanaraman, V.S., Lee, E.M., Pal, R., Venzon, D., Grant, R., Patterson, L.J., Korioth‐Schmitz, B., Buzby, A., Dombagoda, D., Montefiori, D.C., Letvin, N.L., Cafaro, A., Ensoli, B., and Robert‐Guroff, M. 2007. A replication‐competent adenovirus‐human immunodeficiency virus (Ad‐HIV) tat and Ad‐HIV env priming/Tat and envelope protein boosting regimen elicits enhanced protective efficacy against simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P challenge in rhesus macaques. J. Virol. 81:3414‐3427.
  Derdeyn, C.A., Decker, J.M., Bibollet‐Ruche, F., Mokili, J.L., Muldoon, M., Denham, S.A., Heil, M.L., Kasolo, F., Musonda, R., Hahn, B.H., Shaw, G.M., Korber, B.T., Allen, S., and Hunter, E. 2004. Envelope‐constrained neutralization‐sensitive HIV‐1 after heterosexual transmission. Science 303:2019‐2022.
  Dietrich, E.A., Brennan, G., Ferguson, B., Wiseman, R.W., O'Connor, D., and Hu, S.‐L. 2011. Variable prevalence and functional diversity of the antiretroviral restriction factor TRIMCyp in Macaca fascicularis. J. Virol. 85:9956‐9963.
  Edghill‐Smith, Y., Venzon, D., Karpova, T., McNally, J., Nacsa, J., Tsai, W.‐P., Tryniszewska, E., Moniuszko, M., Manischewitz, J., King, L.R., Snodgrass, S.J., Parrish, J., Markham, P., Sowers, M., Martin, D., Lewis, M.G., Berzofsky, J.A., Belyakov, I.M., Moss, B., Tartaglia, J., Bray, M., Hirsh, V., Golding, H., and Franchini, G. 2003. Modeling a safer smallpox vaccination regimen, for human immunodeficiency virus type 1‐infected patients, in immunocompromised macaques. J. Infect. Dis. 188:1181‐1191.
  Edwards, A.D., Diebold, S.S., Slack, E.M.C., Tomizawa, H., Hemmi, H., Kaisho, T., Akira, S., and Reis e Sousa, C. 2003. Toll‐like receptor expression in murine DC subsets: Lack of TLR7 expression by CD8α+ DC correlates with unresponsiveness to imidazoquinolines. Eur. J. Immunol. 33:827‐833.
  Emini, E.A., Schleif, W.A., Nunberg, J.H., Conley, A.J., Eda, Y., Tokiyoshi, S., Putney, S.D., Matsushita, S., Cobb, K.E., Jett, C.M., Eichberg, J.W., and Murthy, K.K. 1992. Prevention of HIV‐1 infection in chimpanzees by gp120 V3 domain‐specific monoclonal antibody. Nature 355:728‐730.
  Esteban, M. 2009. Attenuated poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC as promising vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Hum. Vaccin. 5:867‐871.
  Falivene, J., Del Médico Zajac, M.P., Pascutti, M.F., Rodríguez, A.M., Maeto, C., Perdiguero, B., Gómez, C.E., Esteban, M., Calamante, G., and Gherardi, M.M. 2012. Improving the MVA vaccine potential by deleting the viral gene coding for the IL‐18 binding protein. PLoS One 7:e32220.
  Feeney, M.E., Tang, Y., Roosevelt, K.A., Leslie, A.J., McIntosh, K., Karthas, N., Walker, B.D., and Goulder, P.J.R. 2004. Immune escape precedes breakthrough human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viremia and broadening of the cytotoxic T‐lymphocyte response in an HLA‐B27‐positive long‐term‐nonprogressing child. J. Virol. 78:8927‐8930.
  Feinberg, M.B. and Moore, J.P. 2002. AIDS vaccine models: Challenging challenge viruses. Nat. Med. 8:207‐210.
  Fellay, J., Shianna, K.V., Ge, D., Colombo, S., Ledergerber, B., Weale, M., Zhang, K., Gumbs, C., Castagna, A., Cossarizza, A., Cozzi‐Lepri, A., De Luca, A., Easterbrook, P., Francioli, P., Mallal, S., Martinez‐Picado, J., Miro, J.M., Obel, N., Smith, J.P., Wyniger, J., Descombes, P., Antonarakis, S.E., Letvin, N.L., McMichael, A.J., Haynes, B.F., Telenti, A., and Goldstein, D.B. 2007. A whole‐genome association study of major determinants for host control of HIV‐1. Science 317:944‐947.
  Fenizia, C., Keele, B.F., Nichols, D., Cornara, S., Binello, N., Vaccari, M., Pegu, P., Robert‐Guroff, M., Ma, Z.‐M., Miller, C.J., Venzon, D., Hirsch, V., and Franchini, G. 2011. TRIM5α does not affect simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 replication in vaccinated or unvaccinated Indian rhesus macaques following intrarectal challenge exposure. J. Virol. 85:12399‐12409.
  Fernandez, C.S., Stratov, I., De Rose, R., Walsh, K., Dale, C.J., Smith, M.Z., Agy, M.B., Hu, S.‐L., Krebs, K., Watkins, D.I., O'Connor D.H., Davenport, M.P., and Kent, S.J. 2005. Rapid viral escape at an immunodominant simian‐human immunodeficiency virus cytotoxic T‐lymphocyte epitope exacts a dramatic fitness cost. J. Virol. 79:5721‐5731.
  Flynn, N.M., Forthal, D.N., Harro, C.D., Judson, F.N., Mayer, K.H., and Para, M.F. 2005. Placebo‐controlled phase 3 trial of a recombinant glycoprotein 120 vaccine to prevent HIV‐1 infection. J. Infect. Dis. 191:654‐665.
  Franchini, G., Robert‐Guroff, M., Tartaglia, J., Aggarwal, A., Abimiku, A., Benson, J., Markham, P., Limbach, K., Hurteau, G., Fullen, J., Aldrich, K., Miller, N., Sadoff, J., Paoletti, E., and Gallo, R. C. 1995. Highly attenuated HIV type 2 recombinant poxviruses, but not HIV‐2 recombinant Salmonella vaccines, induce long‐lasting protection in rhesus macaques. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 11:909‐920.
  Franchini, G., Gurunathan, S., Baglyos, L., Plotkin, S., and Tartaglia, J. 2004. Poxvirus‐based vaccine candidates for HIV: Two decades of experience with special emphasis on canarypox vectors. Exp. Rev. Vaccines 3:S75‐S88.
  Frumkin, L.R., Agy, M.B., Coombs, R.W., Panther, L., Morton, W.R., Koehler, J., Florey, M.J., Dragavon, J., Schmidt, A., Katze, M.G., and Corey, L. 1993. Acute infection of Macaca nemestrina by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Virology 195:422‐431.
  Fultz, P.N., Nara, P., Barre‐Sinoussi, F., Chaput, A., Greenberg, M.L., Muchmore, E., Kieny, M.‐P., and Girard, M. 1992. Vaccine protection of chimpanzees against challenge with HIV‐1‐infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Science 256:1687‐1689.
  Gallimore, A., Cranage, M., Cook, N., Almond, N., Bootman, J., Rud, E., Silvera, P., Dennis, M., Corcoran, T., Stott, J., McMichael, A., and Gotch, F. 1995. Early suppression of SIV replication by CD8+ nef‐specific cytotoxic T cells in vaccinated macaques. Nat. Med. 1:1167‐1173.
  Gallo, R.C., Salahuddin, S.Z., Popovic, M., Shearer, G.M., Kaplan, M., Haynes, B.F., Palker, T.J., Redfield, R., Oleske, J., Safai, B., White, G., Foster, P., and Markham, P.D. 1984. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV‐III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science 224:500‐503.
  García‐Arriaza, J., Nájera, J.L., Gómez, C.E., Tewabe, N., Sorzano, C.O.S., Calandra, T., Roger, T., and Esteban, M. 2011. A candidate HIV/AIDS vaccine (MVA‐B) lacking vaccinia virus gene C6L enhances memory HIV‐1‐specific T‐cell responses. PLoS One 6:e24244.
  Gardner, M.B. and Luciw, P.A. 1989. Animal models of AIDS. FASEB J. 3:2593‐2606.
  Genescà, M., Ma, Z.‐M., Wang, Y., Assaf, B., Qureshi, H., Fritts, L., Huang, Y., McChesney, M.B., and Miller, C.J. 2012. Live‐attenuated lentivirus immunization modulates innate immunity and inflammation while protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus challenge. J. Virol. 86:9188‐9200.
  Gibbs, R.A., Rogers, J., Katze, M.G., Bumgarner, R., Weinstock, G.M., Mardis, E.R., Remington, K.A., Strausberg, R.L., Venter, J.C., Wilson, R.K., Batzer, M.A., Bustamante, C.D., Eichler, E.E., Hahn, M.W., Hardison, R.C., Makova, K.D., Miller, W., Milosavljevic, A., Palermo, R.E., Siepel, A., Sikela, J.M., Attaway, T., Bell, S., Bernard, K.E., Buhay, C.J., Chandrabose, M.N., Dao, M., Davis, C., Delehaunty, K.D., Ding, Y., Dinh, H.H., Dugan‐Rocha, S., Fulton, L.A., Gabisi, R.A., Garner, T.T., Godfrey, J., Hawes, A.C., Hernandez, J., Hines, S., Holder, M., Hume, J., Jhangiani, S.N., Joshi, V., Khan, Z.M., Kirkness, E.F., Cree, A., Fowler, R.G., Lee, S., Lewis, L.R., Li, Z., Liu, Y.‐s., Moore, S.M., Muzny, D., Nazareth, L.V., Ngo, D.N., Okwuonu, G.O., Pai, G., Parker, D., Paul, H.A., Pfannkoch, C., Pohl, C.S., Rogers, Y.‐H., Ruiz, S.J., Sabo, A., Santibanez, J., Schneider, B.W., Smith, S.M., Sodergren, E., Svatek, A.F., Utterback, T.R., Vattathil, S., Warren, W., White, C.S., Chinwalla, A.T., Feng, Y., Halpern, A.L., Hillier, L.W., Huang, X., Minx, P., Nelson, J.O., Pepin, K.H., Qin, X., Sutton, G.G., Venter, E., Walenz, B.P., Wallis, J.W., Worley, K.C., Yang, S.‐P., Jones, S.M., Marra, M.A., Rocchi, M., Schein, J.E., Baertsch, R., Clarke, L., Csürös, M., Glasscock, J., Harris, R.A., Havlak, P., Jackson, A.R., Jiang, H., Liu, Y., Messina, D.N., Shen, Y., Song, H.X.‐Z., Wylie, T., Zhang, L., Birney, E., Han, K., Konkel, M.K., Lee, J., Smit, A.F.A., Ullmer, B., Wang, H., Xing, J., Burhans, R., Cheng, Z., Karro, J.E., Ma, J., Raney, B., She, X., Cox, M.J., Demuth, J.P., Dumas, L.J., Han, S.‐G., Hopkins, J., Karimpour‐Fard, A., Kim, Y.H., Pollack, J.R., Vinar, T., Addo‐Quaye, C., Degenhardt, J., Denby, A., Hubisz, M.J., Indap, A., Kosiol, C., Lahn, B.T., Lawson, H.A., Marklein, A., Nielsen, R., Vallender, E.J., Clark, A.G., Ferguson, B., Hernandez, R.D., Hirani, K., Kehrer‐Sawatzki, H., Kolb, J., Patil, S., Pu, L.‐L., Ren, Y., Smith, D.G., Wheeler, D.A., Schenck, I., Ball, E.V., Chen, R., Cooper, D.N., Giardine, B., Hsu, F., Kent, W.J., Lesk, A., Nelson, D.L., O'Brien, W.E., Prüfer, K., Stenson, P.D., Wallace, J.C., Ke, H., Liu, X.‐M., Wang, P., Xiang, A.P., Yang, F., Barber, G.P., Haussler, D., Karolchik, D., Kern, A.D., Kuhn, R.M., Smith, K.E., and Zwieg, A.S. 2007. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome. Science 316:222‐234.
  Girard, M., Kieny, M.‐P., Pinter, A., Barre‐Sinoussi, F., Nara, P., Kolbe, H., Kusumi, K., Chaput, A., Reinhart, T., Muchmore, E., Ronco, J., Kaczorek, M., Gomard, E., Gluckman, J.‐C., and Fultz, P.N. 1991. Immunization of chimpanzees confers protection against challenge with human immunodeficiency virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:542‐546.
  Girard, M., van der Ryst, E., Barré‐Sinoussi, F., Nara, P., Tartaglia, J., Paoletti, E., Blondeau, C., Jennings, M., Verrier, F., Meignier, B., and Fultz, P.N. 1997. Challenge of chimpanzees immunized with a recombinant canarypox‐HIV‐1 virus. Virology 232:98‐104.
  Girard, M., Mahoney, J., Wei, Q., van der Ryst, E., Muchmore, E., Barré‐Sinoussi, F., and Fultz, P.N. 1998. Genital infection of female chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 14:1357‐1367.
  Goepfert, P.A., Elizaga, M.L., Sato, A., Qin, L., Cardinali, M., Hay, C.M., Hural, J., DeRosa, S.C., DeFawe, O.D., Tomaras, G.D., Montefiori, D.C., Xu, Y., Lai, L., Kalams, S.A., Baden, L.R., Frey, S.E., Blattner, W.A., Wyatt, L.S., Moss, B., and Robinson, H.L. 2011. Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity testing of DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines expressing HIV‐1 virus‐like particles. J. Infect. Dis. 203:610‐619.
  Gómez, C.E., Perdiguero, B., Nájera, J.L., Sorzano, C.O.S., Jiménez, V., González‐Sanz, R., and Esteban, M. 2012. Removal of vaccinia virus genes that block interferon type I and II pathways improves adaptive and memory responses of the HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate NYVAC‐C in mice. J. Virol. 86:5026‐5038.
  Gómez‐Romón, V.R., Patterson, L.J., Venzon, D., Liewehr, D., Aldrich, K., Florese, R., and Robert‐Guroff, M. 2005. Vaccine‐elicited antibodies mediate antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity correlated with significantly reduced acute viremia in rhesus macaques challenged with SIVmac251. J. Immunol. 174:2185‐2189.
  Goonetilleke, N., Moore, S., Dally, L., Winstone, N., Cebere, I., Mahmoud, A., Pinheiro, S., Gillespie, G., Brown, D., Loach, V., Roberts, J., Guimaraes‐Walker, A., Hayes, P., Loughran, K., Smith, C., De Bont, J., Verlinde, C., Vooijs, D., Schmidt, C., Boaz, M., Gilmour, J., Fast, P., Dorrell, L., Hanke, T., and McMichael, A.J. 2006. Induction of multifunctional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1)‐specific T cells capable of proliferation in healthy subjects by using a prime‐boost regimen of DNA‐ and modified vaccinia virus Ankara‐vectored vaccines expressing HIV‐1 Gag coupled to CD8+ T‐cell epitopes. J. Virol. 80:4717‐4728.
  Gorny, M.K., Stamatatos, L., Volsky, B., Revesz, K., Williams, C., Wang, X.‐H., Cohen, S., Staudinger, R., and Zolla‐Pazner, S. 2005. Identification of a new quaternary neutralizing epitope on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virus particles. J. Virol. 79:5232‐5237.
  Gray, R.H., Wawer, M.J., Brookmeyer, R., Sewankambo, N.K., Serwadda, D., Wabwire‐Mangen, F., Lutalo, T., Li, X., vanCott, T., and Quinn, T.C. 2001. Probability of HIV‐1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV‐1‐discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda. Lancet 357:1149‐1153.
  Guerra, S., Nájera, J.L., González, J.M., López‐Fernández, L.A., Climent, N., Gatell, J.M., Gallart, T., and Esteban, M. 2007. Distinct gene expression profiling after infection of immature human monocyte‐derived dendritic cells by the attenuated poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC. J. Virol. 81:8707‐8721.
  Haase, A.T. 2011. Early events in sexual transmission of HIV and SIV and opportunities for interventions. Annu. Rev. Med. 62:127‐139.
  Hanke, T., Neumann, V.C., Blanchard, T.J., Sweeney, P., Hill, A.V.S., Smith, G.L., and McMichael, A. 1999. Effective induction of HIV‐specific CTL by multi‐epitope using gene gun in a combined vaccination regime. Vaccine 17:589‐596.
  Hansen, S.G., Ford, J.C., Lewis, M.S., Ventura, A.B., Hughes, C.M., Coyne‐Johnson, L., Whizin, N., Oswald, K., Shoemaker, R., Swanson, T., Legasse, A.W., Chiuchiolo, M.J., Parks, C.L., Axthelm, M.K., Nelson, J.A., Jarvis, M.A., Piatak, M. Jr., Lifson, J.D., and Picker, L.J. 2011. Profound early control of highly pathogenic SIV by an effector memory T‐cell vaccine. Nature 473:523‐527.
  Harari, A., Bart, P.‐A., Stöhr, W., Tapia, G., Garcia, M., Medjitna‐Rais, E., Burnet, S., Cellerai, C., Erlwein, O., Barber, T., Moog, C., Liljestrom, P., Wagner, R., Wolf, H., Kraehenbuhl, J.‐P., Esteban, M., Heeney, J., Frachette, M.‐J., Tartaglia, J., McCormack, S., Babiker, A., Weber, J., and Pantaleo, G. 2008. An HIV‐1 clade C DNA prime, NYVAC boost vaccine regimen induces reliable, polyfunctional, and long‐lasting T cell responses. J. Exp. Med. 205:63‐77.
  Harenberg, A., Guillaume, F., Ryan, E.J., Burdin, N., and Spada, F. 2008. Gene profiling analysis of ALVAC infected human monocyte derived dendritic cells. Vaccine 26:5004‐5013.
  Harouse, J.M., Gettie, A., Tan, R.C.H., Blanchard, J., and Cheng‐Mayer, C. 1999. Distinct pathogenic sequela in rhesus macaques infected with CCR5 or CXCR4 utilizing SHIVs. Science 284:816‐819.
  Hatziioannou, T., Perez‐Caballero, D., Yang, A., Cowan, S., and Bieniasz, P.D. 2004. Retrovirus resistance factors Ref1 and Lv1 are species‐specific variants of TRIM5α. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:10774‐10779.
  Haynes, B.F., Gilbert, P.B., McElrath, M.J., Zolla‐Pazner, S., Tomaras, G.D., Alam, S.M., Evans, D.T., Montefiori, D.C., Karnasuta, C., Sutthent, R., Liao, H.‐X., DeVico, A.L., Lewis, G.K., Williams, C., Pinter, A., Fong, Y., Janes, H., DeCamp, A., Huang, Y., Rao, M., Billings, E., Karasavvas, N., Robb, M.L., Ngauy, V., de Souza, M.S., Paris, R., Ferrari, G., Bailer, R.T., Soderberg, K.A., Andrews, C., Berman, P.W., Frahm, N., De Rosa, S.C., Alpert, M.D., Yates, N.L., Shen, X., Koup, R.A., Pitisuttithum, P., Kaewkungwal, J., Nitayaphan, S., Rerks‐Ngarm, S., Michael, N.L., and Kim, J.H. 2012. Immune‐correlates analysis of an HIV‐1 vaccine efficacy trial. N. Engl. J. Med. 366:1275‐1286.
  Heeney, J.L., Dalgleish, A.G., and Weiss, R.A. 2006. Origins of HIV and the evolution of resistance to AIDS. Science 313:462‐466.
  Hel, Z., Tsai, W.‐P., Thornton, A., Nacsa, J., Giuliani, L., Tryniszewska, E., Poudyal, M., Venzon, D., Wang, X., Altman, J., Watkins, D.I., Lu, W., von Gegerfelt, A., Felber, B.K., Tartaglia, J., Pavlakis, G.N., and Franchini, G. 2001. Potentiation of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)‐specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses by a DNA‐SIV and NYVAC‐SIV prime/boost regimen. J. Immunol. 167:7180‐7191.
  Hel, Z., Nacsa, J., Tsai, W.‐P., Thornton, A., Giuliani, L., Tartaglia, J., and Franchini, G. 2002a. Equivalent immunogenicity of the highly attenuated poxvirus‐based ALVAC‐SIV and NYVAC‐SIV vaccine candidates in SIVmac251‐infected macaques. Virology 304:125‐134.
  Hel, Z., Nacsa, J., Tryniszewska, E., Tsai, W.‐P., Parks, R.W., Montefiori, D.C., Felber, B.K., Tartaglia, J., Pavlakis, G.N., and Franchini, G. 2002b. Containment of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in vaccinated macaques: Correlation with the magnitude of virus‐specific pre‐ and postchallenge CD4+ and CD8+ T‐cell responses. J. Immunol. 169:4778‐4787.
  Hel, Z., Tsai, W.‐P., Tryniszewska, E., Nacsa, J., Markham, P.D., Lewis, M.G., Pavlakis, G.N., Felber, B.K., Tartaglia, J., and Franchini, G. 2006. Improved vaccine protection from simian AIDS by the addition of nonstructural simian immunodeficiency virus genes. J. Immunol. 176:85‐96.
  Helmuth, E.F., Letvin, N.L., and Margolin, D.H. 2000. Germline repertoire of the immunoglobulin V(H)3 family in rhesus monkeys. Immunogenetics 51:519‐527.
  Hemmi, H., Takeuchi, O., Kawai, T., Kaisho, T., Sato, S., Sanjo, H., Matsumoto, M., Hoshino, K., Wagner, H., Takeda, K., and Akira, S. 2000. A Toll‐like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA. Nature 408:740‐745.
  Henrickson, R.V., Maul, D.H., Osborn, K.G., Sever, J.L., Madden, D.L., Ellingsworth, L.R., Anderson, J.H., Lowenstine, L.J., and Gardner, M.B. 1983. Epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency in rhesus monkeys. Lancet 1:388‐390.
  Hessell, A.J., Rakasz, E.G., Poignard, P., Hangartner, L., Landucci, G., Forthal, D.N., Koff, W.C., Watkins, D.I., and Burton, D.R. 2009. Broadly neutralizing human anti‐HIV antibody 2G12 is effective in protection against mucosal SHIV challenge even at low serum neutralizing titers. PLoS Pathog. 5:e100433.
  Higashino, A., Sakate, R., Kameoka, Y., Takahashi, I., Hirata, M., Tanuma, R., Masui, T., Yasutomi, Y., and Osada, N. 2012. Whole‐genome sequencing and analysis of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) genome. Genome Biol. 13:R58.
  Himathongkham, S. and Luciw, P.A. 1996. Restriction of HIV‐1 (subtype B) replication at the entry step in rhesus macaque cells. Virology 219:485‐488.
  Hornung, V., Rothenfusser, S., Britsch, S., Krug, A., Jahrsdörfer, B., Giese, T., Endres, S., and Hartmann, G. 2002. Quantitative expression of toll‐like receptor 1‐10 mRNA in cellular subsets of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sensitivity to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J. Immunol. 168:4531‐4537.
  Hrecka, K., Hao, C., Gierszewska, M., Swanson, S.K., Kesik‐Brodacka, M., Srivastava, S., Florens, L., Washburn, M.P., and Skowronski, J. 2011. Vpx relieves inhibition of HIV‐1 infection of macrophages mediated by the SAMHD1 protein. Nature 474:658‐661.
  Jarrossay, D., Napolitani, G., Colonna, M., Sallusto, F., and Lanzavecchia, A. 2001. Specialization and complementarity in microbial molecule recognition by human myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:3388‐3393.
  Joag, S.V., Stephens, E.B., Adams, R.J., Foresman, L., and Narayan, O. 1994. Pathogenesis of SIVmac infection in Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques: Effects of splenectomy on virus burden. Virology 200:436‐446.
  Joag, S.V., Li, Z., Foresman, L., Stephens, E.B., Zhao, L.‐J., Adany, I., Pinson, D.M., McClure, H.M., and Narayan, O. 1996. Chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus that causes progressive loss of CD4+ T cells and AIDS in pig‐tailed macaques. J. Virol. 70:3189‐3197.
  Kadowaki, N., Ho, S., Antonenko, S., de Waal Malefyt, R.W., Kastelein, R.A., Bazan, F., and Liu, Y.‐J. 2001. Subsets of human dendritic cell precursors express different toll‐like receptors and respond to different microbial antigens. J. Exp. Med. 194:863‐869.
  Kaiser, S.M., Malik, H.S., and Emerman, M. 2007. Restriction of an extinct retrovirus by the human TRIM5α antiviral protein. Science 316:1756‐1758.
  Kaizu, M., Weiler, A.M., Weisgrau, K.L., Vielhuber, K.A., May, G., Piaskowski, S.M., Furlott, J., Maness, N.J., Friedrich, T.C., Loffredo, J.T., Usborne, A., and Rakasz, E.G., 2006. Repeated intravaginal inoculation with cell‐associated simian immunodeficiency virus results in persistent infection of nonhuman primates. J. Infect. Dis. 194:912‐916.
  Keckesova, Z., Ylinen, L.M.J., and Towers, G.J. 2004. The human and African green monkey TRIM5α genes encode Ref1 and Lv1 retroviral restriction factor activities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:10780‐10785.
  Keele, B.F. and Estes, J.D. 2011. Barriers to mucosal transmission of immunodeficiency viruses. Blood 118:839‐846.
  Keele, B.F., Van Heuverswyn, F., Li, Y., Bailes, E., Takehisa, J., Santiago, M.L., Bibollet‐Ruche, F., Chen, Y., Wain, L.V., Liegeois, F., Loul, S., Ngole, E.M., Bienvenue, Y., Delaporte, E., Brookfield, J.F.Y., Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M., Peeters, M., and Hahn, B.H. 2006. Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV‐1. Science 313:523‐526.
  Keele, B.F., Giorgi, E.E., Salazar‐Gonzalez, J.F., Decker, J.M., Pham, K.T., Salazar, M.G., Sun, C., Grayson, T., Wang, S., Li, H., Wei, X., Jiang, C., Kirchherr, J.L., Gao, F., Anderson, J.A., Ping, L.‐H., Swanstrom, R., Tomaras, G.D., Blattner, W.A., Goepfert, P.A., Kilby, J.M., Saag, M.S., Delwart, E.L., Busch, M.P., Cohen, M.S., Montefiori, D.C., Haynes, B.F., Gaschen, B., Athreya, G.S., Lee, H.Y., Wood, N., Seoighe, C., Perelson, A.S., Bhattacharya, T., Korber, B.T., Hahn, B.H., and Shaw, G.M. 2008. Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV‐1 infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105:7552‐7557.
  Keele, B.F., Li, H., Learn, G.H., Hraber, P., Giorgi, E.E., Grayson, T., Sun, C., Chen, Y., Yeh, W.W., Letvin, N.L., Mascola, J.R., Nabel, G.J., Haynes, B.F., Bhattacharya, T., Perelson, A.S., Korber, B.T., Hahn, B.H., and Shaw, G.M. 2009. Low‐dose rectal inoculation of rhesus macaques by SIVsmE660 or SIVmac251 recapitulates human mucosal infection by HIV‐1. J. Exp. Med. 206:1117‐1134.
  Ketloy, C., Engering, A., Srichairatanakul, U., Limsalakpetch, A., Yongvanitchit, K., Pichyangkul, S., and Ruxrungtham, K. 2008. Expression and function of Toll‐like receptors on dendritic cells and other antigen presenting cells from non‐human primates. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 125:18‐30.
  Kibler, K.V., Gomez, C.E., Perdiguero, B., Wong, S., Huynh, T., Holechek, S., Arndt, W., Jimenez, V., Gonzalez‐Sanz, R., Denzler, K., Haddad, E.K., Wagner, R., Sékaly, R.P., Tartaglia, J., Pantaleo, G., Jacobs, B.L., and Esteban, M. 2011. Improved NYVAC‐based vaccine vectors. PLoS One 6:e25674.
  Kiepiela, P., Ngumbela, K., Thobakgale, C., Ramduth, D., Honeyborne, I., Moodley, E., Reddy, S., de Pierres, C., Mncube, Z., Mkhwanazi, N., Bishop, K., van der Stok, M., Nair, K., Khan, N., Crawford, H., Payne, R., Leslie, A., Prado, J., Prendergast, A., Frater, J., McCarthy, N., Brander, C., Learn, G.H., Nickle, D., Rousseau, C., Coovadia, H., Mullins, J.I., Heckerman, D., Walker, B.D., and Goulder, P. 2007. CD8+ T‐cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load. Nat. Med. 13:46‐53.
  Kirmaier, A., Wu, F., Newman, R.M., Hall, L.R., Morgan, J.S., O'Connor, S., Marx, P.A., Meythaler, M., Goldstein, S., Buckler‐White, A., Kaur, A., Hirsch, V.M., and Johnson, W.E. 2010. TRIM5 suppresses cross‐species transmission of a primate immunodeficiency virus and selects for emergence of resistant variants in the new species. PLoS Biol. 8:e100462.
  Kootstra, N.A., Münk, C., Tonnu, N., Landau, N.R., and Verma, I.M. 2003. Abrogation of postentry restriction of HIV‐1‐based lentiviral vector transduction in simian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:1298‐1303.
  Krebs, K.C., Jin, Z., Rudersdorf, R., Hughes, A.L., and O'Connor, D.H. 2005. Unusually high frequency MHC class I alleles in Mauritian origin cynomolgus macaques. J. Immunol. 175:5230‐5239.
  Krug, A., Towarowski, A., Britsch, S., Rothenfusser, S., Hornung, V., Bals, R., Giese, T., Engelmann, H., Endres, S., Krieg, A.M., and Hartmann, G. 2001. Toll‐like receptor expression reveals CpG DNA as a unique microbial stimulus for plasmacytoid dendritic cells which synergizes with CD40 ligand to induce high amounts of IL‐12. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:3026‐3037.
  Laguette, N., Sobhian, B., Casartelli, N., Ringeard, M., Chable‐Bessia, C., Ségéral, E., Yatim, A., Emiliani, S., Schwartz, O., and Benkirane, M. 2011. SAMHD1 is the dendritic‐ and myeloid‐cell‐specific HIV‐1 restriction factor counteracted by Vpx. Nature 474:654‐657.
  Lai, L., Voödrös, D., Kozlowski, P.A., Montefiori, D.C., Wilson, R.L., Akerstrom, V.L., Chennareddi, L., Yu, T., Kannanganat, S., Ofielu, L., Villinger, F., Wyatt, L.S., Moss, B., Amara, R.R., and Robinson, H.L. 2007. GM‐CSF DNA: An adjuvant for higher avidity IgG, rectal IgA, and increased protection against the acute phase of a SHIV‐89.6P challenge by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Virology 369:153‐167.
  Lai, L., Kwa, S., Kozlowski, P.A., Montefiori, D.C., Ferrari, G., Johnson, W.E., Hirsch, V., Villinger, F., Chennareddi, L., Earl, P.L., Moss, B., Amara, R.R., and Robinson, H.L. 2011. Prevention of infection by a granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor co‐expressing DNA/modified vaccinia Ankara simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 204:164‐173.
  Lai, L., Kwa, S.‐F., Kozlowski, P.A., Montefiori, D.C., Nolen, T.L., Hudgens, M.G., Johnson, W.E., Ferrari, G., Hirsch, V.M., Felber, B.K., Pavlakis, G.N., Earl, P.L., Moss, B., Amara, R.R., and Robinson, H.L. 2012. SIVmac239 MVA vaccine with and without a DNA prime, similar prevention of infection by a repeated dose SIVsmE660 challenge despite different immune responses. Vaccine 30:1737‐1745.
  Lakhashe, S.K., Velu, V., Sciaranghella, G., Siddappa, N.B., DiPasquale, J.M., Hemashettar, G., Yoon, J.K., Rasmussen, R.A., Yang, F., Lee, S.J., Montefiori, D.C., Novembre, F.J., Villinger, F., Amara, R.R., Kahn, M., Hu, S.‐L., Li, S., Li, Z., Frankel, F.R., Robert‐Guroff, M., Johnson, W.E., Lieberman, J., and Ruprecht, R.M. 2011. Prime‐boost vaccination with heterologous live vectors encoding SIV gag and multimeric HIV‐1 gp160 protein: Efficacy against repeated mucosal R5 clade C SHIV challenges. Vaccine 29:5611‐5622.
  Leslie, A.J., Pfafferott, K.J., Chetty, P., Draenert, R., Addo, M.M., Feeney, M., Tang, Y., Holmes, E.C., Allen, T., Prado, J.G., Altfeld, M., Brander, C., Dixon, C., Ramduth, D., Jeena, P., Thomas, S.A., St John, A., Roach, T.A., Kupfer, B., Luzzi, G., Edwards, A., Taylor, G., Lyall, H., Tudor‐Williams, G., Novelli, V., Martinez‐Picado, J., Kiepiela, P., Walker, B.D., and Goulder, P.J.R. 2004. HIV evolution: CTL escape mutation and reversion after transmission. Nat. Med. 10:282‐289.
  Letvin, N.L., Eaton, K.A., Aldrich, W.R., Sehgal, P.K., Blake, B.J., Schlossman, S.F., King, N.W., and Hunt, R.D. 1983. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:2718‐2722.
  Letvin, N.L., Daniel, M.D., Sehgal, P.K., Desrosiers, R.C., Hunt, R.D., Waldron, L.M., MacKey, J.J., Schmidt, D.K., Chalifoux, L.V., and King, N.W. 1985. Induction of AIDS‐like disease in macaque monkeys with T‐cell tropic retrovirus STLV‐III. Science 230:71‐73.
  Letvin, N.L., Rao, S.S., Montefiori, D.C., Seaman, M.S., Sun, Y., Lim, S.‐Y., Yeh, W.W., Asmal, M., Gelman, R.S., Shen, L., Whitney, J.B., Seoighe, C., Lacerda, M., Keating, S., Norris, P.J., Hudgens, M.G., Gilbert, P.B., Buzby, A.P., Mach, L.V., Zhang, J., Balachandran, H., Shaw, G.M., Schmidt, S.D., Todd, J.‐P., Dodson, A., Mascola, J.R., and Nabel, G.J. 2011. Immune and genetic correlates of vaccine protection against mucosal infection by SIV in monkeys. Sci. Transl. Med. 3:81ra36.
  Lim, S.‐Y., Chan, T., Gelman, R.S., Whitney, J.B., O'Brien, K.L., Barouch, D.H., Goldstein, D.B., Haynes, B.F., and Letvin, N.L. 2010a. Contributions of Mamu‐A*01 status and TRIM5 allele expression, but not CCL3L copy number variation, to the control of SIVmac251 replication in Indian‐origin rhesus monkeys. PLoS Genet. 6:e100997.
  Lim, S.‐Y., Rogers, T., Chan, T., Whitney, J.B., Kim, J., Sodroski, J., and Letvin, N.L. 2010b. TRIM5α modulates immunodeficiency virus control in rhesus monkeys. PLoS Pathog. 6:e100738.
  Ling, B., Veazey, R.S., Luckay, A., Penedo, C., Xu, K., Lifson, J.D., and Marx, P.A. 2002. SIV(mac) pathogenesis in rhesus macaques of Chinese and Indian origin compared with primary HIV infections in humans. AIDS 16:1489‐1496.
  Link, J.M., Larson, J.E., and Schroeder, H.W. 2005. Despite extensive similarity in germline DH and JH sequence, the adult Rhesus macaque CDR‐H3 repertoire differs from human. Mol. Immunol. 42:943‐955.
  Liu, J., Keele, B.F., Li, H., Keating, S., Norris, P.J., Carville, A., Mansfield, K.G., Tomaras, G.D., Haynes, B.F., Kolodkin‐Gal, D., Letvin, N.L., Hahn, B.H., Shaw, G.M., and Barouch, D.H. 2010. Low‐dose mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus infection restricts early replication kinetics and transmitted virus variants in rhesus monkeys. J. Virol. 84:10406‐10412.
  Loffredo, J.T., Maxwell, J., Qi, Y., Glidden, C.E., Borchardt, G.J., Soma, T., Bean, A.T., Beal, D.R., Wilson, N.A., Rehrauer, W.M., Lifson, J.D., Carrington, M., and Watkins, D.I. 2007a. Mamu‐B*08‐positive macaques control simian immunodeficiency virus replication. J. Virol. 81:8827‐8832.
  Loffredo, J.T., Friedrich, T.C., León, E.J., Stephany, J.J., Rodrigues, D.S., Spencer, S.P., Bean, A.T., Beal, D.R., Burwitz, B.J., Rudersdorf, R.A., Wallace, L.T., Piaskowski, S.M., May, G.E., Sidney, J., Gostick, E., Wilson, N.A., Price, D.A., Kallas, E.G., Piontkivska, H., Hughes, A.L., Sette, A., and Watkins, D.I. 2007b. CD8+ T cells from SIV elite controller macaques recognize Mamu‐B*08‐bound epitopes and select for widespread viral variation. PLoS One 2:e1152.
  Loffredo, J.T., Bean, A.T., Beal, D.R., León, E.J., May, G.E., Piaskowski, S.M., Furlott, J.R., Reed, J., Musani, S.K., Rakasz, E.G., Friedrich, T.C., Wilson, N.A., Allison, D.B., and Watkins, D.I. 2008. Patterns of CD8+ immunodominance may influence the ability of Mamu‐B*08‐positive macaques to naturally control simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 replication. J. Virol. 82:1723‐1738.
  Loffredo, J.T., Sidney, J., Bean, A.T., Beal, D.R., Bardet, W., Wahl, A., Hawkins, O.E., Piaskowski, S., Wilson, N.A., Hildebrand, W.H., Watkins, D.I., and Sette, A. 2009. Two MHC class I molecules associated with elite control of immunodeficiency virus replication, Mamu‐B*08 and HLA‐B*2705, bind peptides with sequence similarity. J. Immunol. 182:7763‐7775.
  London, W.T., Sever, J.L., Madden, D.L., Henrickson, R.V., Gravell, M., Maul, D.H., Dalakas, M.C., Osborn, K.G., Houff, S.A., and Gardner, M.B. 1983. Experimental transmission of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) and Kaposi‐like skin lesions. Lancet 2:869‐873.
  Looney, D.J., McClure, J., Kent, S.J., Radaelli, A., Kraus, G., Schmidt, A., Steffy, K., Greenberg, P., Hu, S.‐L., Morton, W.R., and Wong‐Staal, F. 1998. A minimally replicative HIV‐2 live‐virus vaccine protects M. nemestrina from disease after HIV‐2287 challenge. Virology 242:150‐160.
  Ma, Z.‐M., Keele, B.F., Qureshi, H., Stone, M., DeSilva, V., Fritts, L., Lifson, J.D., and Miller, C.J. 2011. SIVmac251 is inefficiently transmitted to rhesus macaques by penile inoculation with a single SIVenv variant found in ramp‐up phase plasma. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 27:1259‐1269.
  Maness, N.J., Valentine, L.E., May, G.E., Reed, J., Piaskowski, S.M., Soma, T., Furlott, J., Rakasz, E.G., Friedrich, T.C., Price, D.A., Gostick, E., Hughes, A.L., Sidney, J., Sette, A., Wilson, N.A., and Watkins, D.I. 2007. AIDS virus‐specific CD8+ T lymphocytes against an immunodominant cryptic epitope select for viral escape. J. Exp. Med. 204:2505‐2512.
  Manrique, M., Micewicz, E., Kozlowski, P.A., Wang, S.‐W., Aurora, D., Wilson, R.L., Ghebremichael, M., Mazzara, G., Montefiori, D., Carville, A., Mansfield, K.G., and Aldovini, A. 2008. DNA‐MVA vaccine protection after X4 SHIV challenge in macaques correlates with day‐of‐challenge antiviral CD4+ cell‐mediated immunity levels and postchallenge preservation of CD4+ T cell memory. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 24:505‐519.
  Manrique, M., Kozlowski, P.A., Wang, S.‐W., Wilson, R.L., Micewicz, E., Montefiori, D.C., Mansfield, K.G., Carville, A., and Aldovini, A. 2009. Nasal DNA‐MVA SIV vaccination provides more significant protection from progression to AIDS than a similar intramuscular vaccination. Mucosal Immunol. 2:536‐550.
  Marcondes, M.C.G., Penedo, M.C.T., Lanigan, C., Hall, D., Watry, D.D., Zandonatti, M., and Fox, H.S. 2006. Simian immunodeficiency virus‐induced CD4+ T cell deficits in cytokine secretion profile are dependent on monkey origin. Viral Immunol. 19:679‐689.
  Marthas, M.L., Lu, D., Penedo, M.C.T., Hendrickx, A.G., and Miller, C.J. 2001. Titration of an SIVmac251 stock by vaginal inoculation of Indian and Chinese origin rhesus macaques: Transmission efficiency, viral loads, and antibody responses. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 17:1455‐1466.
  Marx, P.A., Spira, A.I., Gettie, A., Dailey, P.J., Veazey, R.S., Lackner, A.A., Mahoney, C.J., Miller, C.J., Claypool, L.E., Ho, D.D., and Alexander, N.J. 1996. Progesterone implants enhance SIV vaginal transmission and early virus load. Nat. Med. 2:1084‐1089.
  McClure, J., Schmidt, A.M., Rey‐Cuille, M.‐A., Bannink, J., Misher, L., Tsai, C.‐C., Anderson, D.M., Morton, W.R., and Hu, S.‐L. 2000. Derivation and characterization of a highly pathogenic isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 that causes rapid CD4+ cell depletion in Macaca nemestrina. J. Med. Primatol. 29:114‐126.
  McCormack, S., Stöhr, W., Barber, T., Bart, P.‐A., Harari, A., Moog, C., Ciuffreda, D., Cellerai, C., Cowen, M., Gamboni, R., Burnet, S., Legg, K., Brodnicki, E., Wolf, H., Wagner, R., Heeney, J., Frachette, M.‐J., Tartaglia, J., Babiker, A., Pantaleo, G., and Weber, J. 2008. EV02: A Phase I trial to compare the safety and immunogenicity of HIV DNA‐C prime‐NYVAC‐C boost to NYVAC‐C alone. Vaccine 26:3162‐3174.
  McDermott, A.B., O'Connor, D.H., Fuenger, S., Piaskowski, S., Martin, S., Loffredo, J., Reynolds, M., Reed, J., Furlott, J., Jacoby, T., Riek, C., Dodds, E., Krebs, K., Davies, M.‐E., Schleif, W.A., Casimiro, D.R., Shiver, J.W., and Watkins, D.I. 2005. Cytotoxic T‐lymphocyte escape does not always explain the transient control of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 viremia in adenovirus‐boosted and DNA‐primed Mamu‐A*01‐positive rhesus macaques. J. Virol. 79:15556‐15566.
  McLellan, J.S., Pancera, M., Carrico, C., Gorman, J., Julien, J.‐P., Khayat, R., Louder, R., Pejchal, R., Sastry, M., Dai, K., O'Dell, S., Patel, N., Shahzad‐ul‐Hussan, S., Yang, Y., Zhang, B., Zhou, T., Zhu, J., Boyington, J.C., Chuang, G.‐Y., Diwanji, D., Georgiev, I., Kwon, Y.D., Lee, D., Louder, M.K., Moquin, S., Schmidt, S.D., Yang, Z.‐Y., Bonsignori, M., Crump, J.A., Kapiga, S.H., Sam, N.E., Haynes, B.F., Burton, D.R., Koff, W.C., Walker, L.M., Phogat, S., Wyatt, R., Orwenyo, J., Wang, L.‐X., Arthos, J., Bewley, C.A., Mascola, J.R., Nabel, G.J., Schief, W.R., Ward, A.B., Wilson, I.A., and Kwong, P.D. 2011. Structure of HIV‐1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9. Nature 480:336‐343.
  Meek, K., Eversole, T., and Capra, J.D. 1991. Conservation of the most JH proximal Ig VH gene segment (VHVI) throughout primate evolution. J. Immunol. 146:2434‐2438.
  Mogensen, T.H., Melchjorsen, J., Larsen, C.S., and Paludan, S.R. 2010. Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection. Retrovirology 7:54.
  Moss, B. 1991. Vaccinia virus: A tool for research and vaccine development. Science 252:1662.
  Mothé, B.R., Weinfurter, J., Wang, C., Rehrauer, W., Wilson, N., Allen, T.M., Allison, D.B., and Watkins, D.I. 2003. Expression of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule Mamu‐A*01 is associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 replication. J. Virol. 77:2736‐2740.
  Mühl, T., Krawczak, M., ten Haaft, P., Hunsmann, G., and Sauermann, U. 2002. MHC class I alleles influence set‐point viral load and survival time in simian immunodeficiency virus‐infected rhesus monkeys. J. Immunol. 169:3438‐3446.
  Münk, C., Brandt, S.M., Lucero, G., and Landau, N.R. 2002. A dominant block to HIV‐1 replication at reverse transcription in simian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99:13843‐13848.
  Murphey‐Corb, M., Martin, L.N., Rangan, S.R.S., Baskin, G.B., Gormus, B.J., Wolf, R.H., Andes, W.A., West, M., and Montelaro, R.C. 1986. Isolation of an HTLV‐III‐related retrovirus from macaques with simian AIDS and its possible origin in asymptomatic mangabeys. Nature 321:435‐437.
  Myagkikh, M., Alipanah, S., Markham, P.D., Tartaglia, J., Paoletti, E., Gallo, R.C., Franchini, G., and Robert‐Guroff, M. 1996. Multiple immunizations with attenuated poxvirus HIV type 2 recombinants and subunit boosts required for protection of rhesus macaques. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 12:985‐992.
  Nacsa, J., Radaelli, A., Edghill‐Smith, Y., Venzon, D., Tsai, W.‐P., De Giuli Morghen C.G., Panicali, D., Tartaglia, J., and Franchini, G. 2004. Avipox‐based simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines elicit a high frequency of SIV‐specific CD4+ and CD8 +T‐cell responses in vaccinia‐experienced SIVmac251‐infected macaques. Vaccine 22:597‐606.
  Nakayama, E.E. and Shioda, T. 2012. TRIM5α and species tropism of HIV/SIV. Front. Microbiol. 3:13.
  Nawaz, F., Cicala, C., Van Ryk, D., Block, K.E., Jelicic, K., McNally, J.P., Ogundare, O., Pascuccio, M., Patel, N., Wei, D.L., Fauci, A.S., and Arthos, J. 2011. The genotype of early‐transmitting HIV gp120s promotes α4β7‐reactivity, revealing α4β7+/CD4+ T cells as key targets in mucosal transmission. PLoS Pathog. 7:e1001301.
  Neil, S.J., Zang, T., and Bieniasz, P.D. 2008. Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV‐1 Vpu. Nature 451:425‐430.
  Newman, R.M., Hall, L., Connole, M., Chen, G.‐L., Sato, S., Yuste, E., Diehl, W., Hunter, E., Kaur, A., Miller, G.M., and Johnson, W.E. 2006. Balancing selection and the evolution of functional polymorphism in Old World monkey TRIM5α. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103:19134‐19139.
  Nishimura, Y., Shingai, M., Willey, R., Sadjadpour, R., Lee, W.R., Brown, C.R., Brenchley, J.M., Buckler‐White, A., Petros, R., Eckhaus, M., Hoffman, V., Igarashi, T., and Martin, M.A. 2010. Generation of the pathogenic R5‐tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVAD8 by serial passaging in rhesus macaques. J. Virol. 84:4769‐4781.
  Nisole, S., Lynch, C., Stoye, J.P., and Yap, M.W. 2004. A Trim5‐cyclophilin A fusion protein found in owl monkey kidney cells can restrict HIV‐1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:13324‐13328.
  O'Brien, S.J. and Moore, J.P. 2000. The effect of genetic variation in chemokines and their receptors on HIV transmission and progression to AIDS. Immunol. Rev. 177:99‐111.
  O'Connor, D.H., Allen, T.M., Vogel, T.U., Jing, P., DeSouza, I.P., Dodds, E., Dunphy, E.J., Melsaether, C., Mothé, B., Yamamoto, H., Horton, H., Wilson, N., Hughes, A.L., and Watkins, D.I. 2002. Acute phase cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape is a hallmark of simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Nat. Med. 8:493‐499.
  O'Connor, D.H., Mothé, B.R., Weinfurter, J.T., Fuenger, S., Rehrauer, W.M., Jing, P., Rudersdorf, R.R., Liebl, M.E., Krebs, K., Vasquez, J., Dodds, E., Loffredo, J., Martin, S., McDermott, A.B., Allen, T.M., Wang, C., Doxiadis, G.G., Montefiori, D.C., Hughes, A., Burton, D.R., Allison, D.B., Wolinsky, S.M., Bontrop, R., Picker, L.J., and Watkins, D.I. 2003. Major histocompatibility complex class I alleles associated with slow simian immunodeficiency virus disease progression bind epitopes recognized by dominant acute‐phase cytotoxic‐T‐lymphocyte responses. J. Virol. 77:9029‐9040.
  Otting, N., Heijmans, C.M., Noort, R.C., de Groot, N.G., Doxiadis, G.G.M., van Rood, J.J., Watkins, D.I., and Bontrop, R.E. 2005. Unparalleled complexity of the MHC class I region in rhesus macaques. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102:1626‐1631.
  Padian, N.S., Shiboski, S.C., Glass, S.O., and Vittinghoff, E. 1997. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in northern California: Results from a ten‐year study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 146:350‐357.
  Pal, R., Venzon, D., Letvin, N.L., Santra, S., Montefiori, D.C., Miller, N.R., Tryniszewska, E., Lewis, M.G., VanCott, T.C., Hirsch, V., Woodward, R., Gibson, A., Grace, M., Dobratz, E., Markham, P.D., Hel, Z., Nacsa, J., Klein, M., Tartaglia, J., and Franchini, G. 2002. ALVAC‐SIV‐gag‐pol‐env‐based vaccination and macaque major histocompatibility complex class I (A*01) delay simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac‐induced immunodeficiency. J. Virol. 76:292‐302.
  Pal, R., Venzon, D., Santra, S., Kalyanaraman, V.S., Montefiori, D.C., Hocker, L., Hudacik, L., Rose, N., Nacsa, J., Edghill‐Smith, Y., Moniuszko, M., Hel, Z., Belyakov, I.M., Berzofsky, J.A., Washington Parks, R., Markham, P., Letvin, N.L., Tartaglia, J., and Franchini, G. 2006. Systemic immunization with an ALVAC‐HIV‐1/protein boost vaccine strategy protects rhesus macaques from CD4+ T‐cell loss and reduces both systemic and mucosal SHIVKU2 RNA levels. J. Virol. 80:3732‐3742.
  Pantaleo, G., Esteban, M., Jacobs, B., and Tartaglia, J. 2010. Poxvirus vector‐based HIV vaccines. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS 5:391‐396.
  Pegu, P., Vaccari, M., Gordon, S., Keele, B.F., Doster, M., Guan, Y., Ferrari, G., Pal, R., Ferrari, M.G., Whitney, S., Hudacik, L., Billings, E., Rao, M., Montefiori, D., Tomaras, G., Alam, S.M., Fenizia, C., Lifson, J.D., Stablein, D., Tartaglia, J., Michael, N., Kim, J., Venzon, D., and Franchini, G. 2013. Antibodies with high avidity to the gp120 envelope protein in protection from simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251) acquisition in an immunization regimen that mimics the RV‐144 Thai trial. J. Virol. 87:1708‐1719.
  Pereyra, F., Jia, X., McLaren, P.J., Telenti, A., de Bakker, P.I.W., Walker, B.D., and International HIV Controllers Study. 2010. The major genetic determinants of HIV‐1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. Science 330:1551‐1557.
  Perreau, M., Welles, H.C., Harari, A., Hall, O., Martin, R., Maillard, M., Dorta, G., Bart, P.‐A., Kremer, E.J., Tartaglia, J., Wagner, R., Esteban, M., Levy, Y., and Pantaleo, G. 2011. DNA/NYVAC vaccine regimen induces HIV‐specific CD4 and CD8 T‐cell responses in intestinal mucosa. J. Virol. 85:9854‐9862.
  Perron, M.J., Stremlau, M., Song, B., Ulm, W., Mulligan, R.C., and Sodroski, J. 2004. TRIM5α mediates the postentry block to N‐tropic murine leukemia viruses in human cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:11827‐11832.
  Pilcher, C.D., Joaki, G., Hoffman, I.F., Martinson, F.E., Mapanje, C., Stewart, P.W., Powers, K.A., Galvin, S., Chilongozi, D., Gama, S., Price, M.A., Fiscus, S.A., and Cohen, M.S. 2007. Amplified transmission of HIV‐1: Comparison of HIV‐1 concentrations in semen and blood during acute and chronic infection. AIDS 21:1723‐1730.
  Pitisuttithum, P., Gilbert, P., Gurwith, M., Heyward, W., Martin, M., van Griensven, F., Hu, D., Tappero, J.W., and Choopanya, K. 2006. Randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled efficacy trial of a bivalent recombinant glycoprotein 120 HIV‐1 vaccine among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. J. Infect. Dis. 194:1661‐1671.
  Price, A.J., Marzetta, F., Lammers, M., Ylinen, L.M.J., Schaller, T., Wilson, S.J., Towers, G.J., and James, L.C. 2009. Active site remodeling switches HIV specificity of antiretroviral TRIMCyp. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 16:1036‐1042.
  Price, D.A., Asher, T.E., Wilson, N.A., Nason, M.C., Brenchley, J.M., Metzler, I.S., Venturi, V., Gostick, E., Chattopadhyay, P.K., Roederer, M., Davenport, M.P., Watkins, D.I., and Douek, D.C. 2009. Public clonotype usage identifies protective Gag‐specific CD8+ T cell responses in SIV infection. J. Exp. Med. 206:923‐936.
  Quakkelaar, E.D., Redeker, A., Haddad, E.K., Harari, A., McCaughey, S.M., Duhen, T., Filali‐Mouhim, A., Goulet, J.‐P., Loof, N.M., Ossendorp, F., Perdiguero, B., Heinen, P., Gomez, C.E., Kibler, K.V., Koelle, D.M., Sékaly, R.P., Sallusto, F., Lanzavecchia, A., Pantaleo, G., Esteban, M., Tartaglia, J., Jacobs, B.L., and Melief, C.J.M. 2011. Improved innate and adaptive immunostimulation by genetically modified HIV‐1 protein expressing NYVAC vectors. PLoS One 6:e16819.
  Qureshi, H., Ma, Z.‐M., Huang, Y., Hodge, G., Thomas, M.A., DiPasquale, J., DeSilva, V., Fritts, L., Bett, A.J., Casimiro, D.R., Shiver, J.W., Robert‐Guroff, M., Robertson, M.N., McChesney, M.B., Gilbert, P.B., and Miller, C.J. 2012. Low‐dose penile SIVmac251 exposure of rhesus macaques infected with adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and then immunized with a replication‐defective Ad5‐based SIV gag/pol/nef vaccine recapitulates the results of the phase IIb step trial of a similar HIV‐1 vaccine. J. Virol. 86:2239‐2250.
  Ranasinghe, S., Flanders, M., Cutler, S., Soghoian, D.Z., Ghebremichael, M., Davis, I., Lindqvist, M., Pereyra, F., Walker, B.D., Heckerman, D., and Streeck, H. 2012. HIV‐specific CD4 T cell responses to different viral proteins have discordant associations with viral load and clinical outcome. J. Virol. 86:277‐283.
  Reimann, K.A., Li, J.T., Veazey, R., Halloran, M., Park, I.‐W., Karlsson, G.B., Sodroski, J., and Letvin, N.L. 1996. A chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus expressing a primary patient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate env causes an AIDS‐like disease after in vivo passage in rhesus monkeys. J. Virol. 70:6922‐6928.
  Reimann, K.A., Parker, R.A., Seaman, M.S., Beaudry, K., Beddall, M., Peterson, L., Williams, K.C., Veazey, R.S., Montefiori, D.C., Mascola, J.R., Nabel, G.J., and Letvin, N.L. 2005. Pathogenicity of simian‐human immunodeficiency virus SHIV‐89.6P and SIVmac is attenuated in cynomolgus macaques and associated with early T‐lymphocyte responses. J. Virol. 79:8878‐8885.
  Rerks‐Ngarm, S., Pitisuttithum, P., Nitayaphan, S., Kaewkungwal, J., Chiu, J., Paris, R., Premsri, N., Namwat, C., de Souza, M., Adams, E., Benenson, M., Gurunathan, S., Tartaglia, J., McNeil, J.G., Francis, D.P., Stablein, D., Birx, D.L., Chunsuttiwat, S., Khamboonruang, C., Thongcharoen, P., Robb, M.L., Michael, N.L., Kunasol, P., and Kim, J.H. 2009. Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to prevent HIV‐1 infection in Thailand. N. Engl. J. Med. 361:2209‐2220.
  Rerks‐Ngarm, S., Paris, R.M., Chunsutthiwat, S., Premsri, N., Namwat, C., Bowonwatanuwong, C., Li, S.S., Kaewkungkal, J., Trichavaroj, R., Churikanont, N., de Souza, M.S., Andrews, C., Francis, D., Adams, E., Flores, J., Gurunathan, S., Tartaglia, J., O'Connell, R.J., Eamsila, C., Nitayaphan, S., Ngauy, V., Thongcharoen, P., Kunasol, P., Michael, N.L., Robb, M.L., Gilbert, P.B., and Kim, J.H. 2013. Extended evaluation of the virologic, immunologic, and clinical course of volunteers who acquiredHIV‐1 infection in a phase III vaccine trial of ALVAC‐HIV and AIDSVAXB/E. J. Infect. Dis. 207:1195‐1205.
  Reynolds, M.R., Rakasz, E., Skinner, P.J., White, C., Abel, K., Ma, Z.‐M., Compton, L., Napoé, G., Wilson, N., Miller, C.J., Haase, A., and Watkins, D.I. 2005. CD8+ T‐lymphocyte response to major immunodominant epitopes after vaginal exposure to simian immunodeficiency virus: Too late and too little. J. Virol. 79:9228‐9235.
  Reynolds, M.R., Weiler, A.M., Piaskowski, S.M., Piatak, M. Jr., Robertson, H.T., Allison, D.B., Bett, A.J., Casimiro, D.R., Shiver, J.W., Wilson, N.A., Lifson, J.D., Koff, W.C., and Watkins, D.I. 2012. A trivalent recombinant Ad5 gag/pol/nef vaccine fails to protect rhesus macaques from infection or control virus replication after a limiting‐dose heterologous SIV challenge. Vaccine 30:4465‐4475.
  Rothaeusler, K., Ma, Z.‐M., Qureshi, H., Carroll, T.D., Rourke, T., McChesney, M.B., and Miller, C.J. 2012. Antiviral antibodies and T cells are present in the foreskin of simian immunodeficiency virus‐infected rhesus macaques. J. Virol. 86:7098‐7106.
  Rowland‐Jones, S., Pinheiro, S., and Kaul, R. 2001. New insights into host factors in HIV‐1 pathogenesis. Cell 104:473‐476.
  Royce, R.A., Seña, A., Cates, W. Jr., and Cohen, M.S. 1997. Sexual transmission of HIV. N. Engl. J. Med. 336:1072‐1078.
  Saito, A., Kono, K., Nomaguchi, M., Yasutomi, Y., Adachi, A., Shioda, T., Akari, H., and Nakayama, E.E. 2012. Geographical, genetic and functional diversity of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). J. Gen. Virol. 93:594‐602.
  Salazar‐Gonzalez, J.F., Bailes, E., Pham, K.T., Salazar, M.G., Guffey, M.B., Keele, B.F., Derdeyn, C.A., Farmer, P., Hunter, E., Allen, S., Manigart, O., Mulenga, J., Anderson, J.A., Swanstrom, R., Haynes, B.F., Athreya, G.S., Korber, B.T.M., Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M., and Hahn, B.H. 2008. Deciphering human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and early envelope diversification by single‐genome amplification and sequencing. J. Virol. 82:3952‐3970.
  Sallé, B., Brochard, P., Bourry, O., Mannioui, A., Andrieu, T., Prevot, S., Dejucq‐Rainsford, N., Dereuddre‐Bosquet, N., and Le Grand, R. 2010. Infection of macaques after vaginal exposure to cell‐associated simian immunodeficiency virus. J. Infect. Dis. 202:337‐344.
  Sandström, E., Nilsson, C., Hejdeman, B., Bråve, A., Bratt, G., Robb, M., Cox, J., VanCott, T., Marovich, M., Stout, R., Aboud, S., Bakari, M., Pallangyo, K., Ljungberg, K., Moss, B., Earl, P., Michael, N., Birx, D., Mhalu, F., Wahren, B., and Biberfeld, G. 2008. Broad immunogenicity of a multigene, multiclade HIV‐1 DNA vaccine boosted with heterologous HIV‐1 recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara. J. Infect. Dis. 198:1482‐1490.
  Santiago, M.L., Range, F., Keele, B.F., Li, Y., Bailes, E., Bibollet‐Ruche, F., Fruteau, C., Noë, R., Peeters, M., Brookfield, J.F.Y., Shaw, G.M., Sharp, P.M., and Hahn, B.H. 2005. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection in free‐ranging sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys) from the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire: Implications for the origin of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus type 2. J. Virol. 79:12515‐12527.
  Sawyer, S.L., Wu, L.I., Emerman, M., and Malik, H.S. 2005. Positive selection of primate TRIM5α identifies a critical species‐specific retroviral restriction domain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102:2832‐2837.
  Sayah, D.M., Sokolskaja, E., Berthoux, L., and Luban, J. 2004. Cyclophilin A retrotransposition into TRIM5 explains owl monkey resistance to HIV‐1. Nature 430:569‐573.
  Scinicariello, F., Engleman, C.N., Jayashankar, L., McClure, H.M., and Attanasio, R. 2004. Rhesus macaque antibody molecules: Sequences and heterogeneity of alpha and gamma constant regions. Immunology 111:66‐74.
  Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M., and Hahn, B.H. 2005. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of chimpanzees. J. Virol. 79:3891‐3902.
  Shedlock, D.J., Silvestri, G., and Weiner, D.B. 2009. Monkeying around with HIV vaccines: Using rhesus macaques to define “gatekeepers” for clinical trials. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 9:717‐728.
  Shibata, R., Sakai, H., Kawamura, M., Tokunaga, K., and Adachi, A. 1995. Early replication block of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in monkey cells. J. Gen. Virol. 76:2723‐2730.
  Shiver, J.W., Fu, T.‐M., Chen, L., Casimiro, D.R., Davies, M.‐E., Evans, R.K., Zhang, Z.‐Q., Simon, A.J., Trigona, W.L., Dubey, S.A., Huang, L., Harris, V.A., Long, R.S., Liang, X., Handt, L., Schleif, W.A., Zhu, L., Freed, D.C., Persaud, N.V., Guan, L., Punt, K.S., Tang, A., Chen, M., Wilson, K.A., Collins, K.B., Heidecker, G.J., Fernandez, V.R., Perry, H.C., Joyce, J.G., Grimm, K.M., Cook, J.C., Keller, P.M., Kresock, D.S., Mach, H., Troutman, R.D., Isopi, L.A., Williams, D.M., Xu, Z., Bohannon, K.E., Volkin, D.B., Montefiori, D.C., Miura, A., Krivulka, G.R., Lifton, M.A., Kuroda, M.J., Schmitz, J.E., Letvin, N.L., Caulfield, M.J., Bett, A.J., Youil, R., Kaslow, D.C., and Emini, E.A. 2002. Replication‐incompetent adenoviral vaccine vector elicits effective anti‐immunodeficiency‐virus immunity. Nature 415:331‐335.
  Sina, S.T., Ren, W., and Cheng‐Mayer, C. 2011. Coreceptor use in nonhuman primate models of HIV infection. J. Transl. Med. 9:S7.
  Smith, M.Z., Dale, C.J., De Rose, R., Stratov, I., Fernandez, C.S., Brooks, A.G., Weinfurter, J., Krebs, K., Riek, C., Watkins, D.I., O'Connor D.H., and Kent, S.J. 2005a. Analysis of pigtail macaque major histocompatibility complex class I molecules presenting immunodominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes. J. Virol. 79:684‐695.
  Smith, M.Z., Fernandez, C.S., Chung, A., Dale, C.J., De Rose, R., Lin, J., Brooks, A.G., Krebs, K.C., Watkins, D.I., O'Connor, D.H., Davenport, M.P., and Kent, S.J. 2005b. The pigtail macaque MHC class I allele Mane‐A*10 presents an immundominant SIV Gag epitope: Identification, tetramer development and implications of immune escape and reversion. J. Med. Primatol. 34:282‐293.
  Sobieszczyk, M.E., Lingappa, J.R., and McElrath, M.J. 2011. Host genetic polymorphisms associated with innate immune factors and HIV‐1. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS 6:427‐434.
  Sodora, D.L., Gettie, A., Miller, C.J., and Marx, P.A. 1998. Vaginal transmission of SIV: Assessing infectivity and hormonal influences in macaques inoculated with cell‐free and cell‐associated viral stocks. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 14:S119‐S123.
  Song, B., Gold, B., O'hUigin, C., Javanbakht, H., Li, X., Stremlau, M., Winkler, C., Dean, M., and Sodroski, J. 2005. The B30.2(SPRY) domain of the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5α exhibits lineage‐specific length and sequence variation in primates. J. Virol. 79:6111‐6121.
  Staprans, S.I., Barry, A.P., Silvestri, G., Safrit, J.T., Kozyr, N., Sumpter, B., Nguyen, H., McClure, H., Montefiori, D., Cohen, J.I., and Feinberg, M.B. 2004. Enhanced SIV replication and accelerated progression to AIDS in macaques primed to mount a CD4 T cell response to the SIV envelope protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:13026‐13031.
  Stevceva, L., Alvarez, X., Lackner, A.A., Tryniszewska, E., Kelsall, B., Nacsa, J., Tartaglia, J., Strober, W., and Franchini, G. 2002. Both mucosal and systemic routes of immunization with the live, attenuated NYVAC/simian immunodeficiency virus SIVgpe recombinant vaccine result in Gag‐specific CD8+ T‐cell responses in mucosal tissues of macaques. J. Virol. 76:11659‐11676.
  Stittelaar, K.J., Kuiken, T., de Swart, R.L., van Amerongen, G., Vos, H.W., Niesters, H.G.M., van Schalkwijk, P., van der Kwast, T., Wyatt, L.S., Moss, B., and Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. 2001. Safety of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in immune‐suppressed macaques. Vaccine 19:3700‐3709.
  Stone, M., Keele, B.F., Ma, Z.‐M., Bailes, E., Dutra, J., Hahn, B.H., Shaw, G.M., and Miller, C.J. 2010. A limited number of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env variants are transmitted to rhesus macaques vaginally inoculated with SIVmac251. J. Virol. 84:7083‐7095.
  Stremlau, M., Owens, C.M., Perron, M.J., Kiessling, M., Autissier, P., and Sodroski, J. 2004. The cytoplasmic body component TRIM5α restricts HIV‐1 infection in Old World monkeys. Nature 427:848‐853.
  Stremlau, M., Perron, M., Welikala, S., and Sodroski, J. 2005. Species‐specific variation in the B30.2(SPRY) domain of TRIM5α determines the potency of human immunodeficiency virus restriction. J. Virol. 79:3139‐3145.
  Stromberg, K., Benveniste, R.E., Arthur, L.O., Rabin, H., Giddens, W.E. Jr., Ochs, H.D., Morton, W.R., and Tsai, C.C. 1984. Characterization of exogenous type D retrovirus from a fibroma of a macaque with simian AIDS and fibromatosis. Science 224:289‐292.
  Sui, Y., Zhu, Q., Gagnon, S., Dzutsev, A., Terabe, M., Vaccari, M., Venzon, D., Klinman, D., Strober, W., Kelsall, B., Franchini, G., Belyakov, I.M., and Berzofsky, J.A. 2010. Innate and adaptive immune correlates of vaccine and adjuvant‐induced control of mucosal transmission of SIV in macaques. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107:9843‐9848.
  Sui, Y., Gagnon, S., Dzutsev, A., Zhu, Q., Yu, H., Hogg, A., Wang, Y., Xia, Z., Belyakov, I.M., Venzon, D., Klinman, D., Strober, W., Kelsall, B., Franchini, G., and Berzofsky, J.A. 2011. TLR agonists and/or IL‐15 adjuvanted mucosal SIV vaccine reduced gut CD4+ memory T cell loss in SIVmac251‐challenged rhesus macaques. Vaccine 30:59‐68.
  Sun, Y., Santra, S., Schmitz, J.E., Roederer, M., and Letvin, N.L. 2008. Magnitude and quality of vaccine‐elicited T‐cell responses in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication in rhesus monkeys. J. Virol. 82:8812‐8819.
  Tan, X., Pearce‐Pratt, R., and Phillips, D.M. 1993. Productive infection of a cervical epithelial cell line with human immunodeficiency virus: Implications for sexual transmission. J. Virol. 67:6447‐6452.
  Tartaglia, J., Perkus, M.E., Taylor, J., Norton, E.K., Audonnet, J.‐C., Cox, W.I., Davis, S.W., Van der Hoeven, J., Meignier, B., Riviere, M., Languet, B., and Paoletti, E. 1992. NYVAC: A highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus. Virology 188:217‐232.
  Taylor, J., Meignier, B., Tartaglia, J., Languet, B., Van der Hoeven, J., Franchini, G., Trimarchi, C., and Paoletti, E. 1995. Biological and immunogenic properties of a canarypox‐rabies recombinant, ALVAC‐RG (vCP65) in non‐avian species. Vaccine 13:539‐549.
  Trichel, A.M., Rajakumar, P.A., and Murphey‐Corb, M. 2002. Species‐specific variation in SIV disease progression between Chinese and Indian subspecies of rhesus macaque. J. Med. Primatol. 31:171‐178.
  Urvater, J.A., McAdam, S.N., Loehrke, J.H., Allen, T.M., Moran, J.L., Rowell, T.J., Rojo, S., López de Castro, J.A., Taurog, J.D., and Watkins, D.I. 2000. A high incidence of Shigella‐induced arthritis in a primate species: Major histocompatibility complex class I molecules associated with resistance and susceptibility, and their relationship to HLA‐B27. Immunogenetics 51:314‐325.
  Vaccari, M., Trindade, C.J., Venzon, D., Zanetti, M., and Franchini, G. 2005. Vaccine‐induced CD8+ central memory T cells in protection from simian AIDS. J. Immunol. 175:3502‐3507.
  Vaccari, M., Mattapallil, J., Song, K., Tsai, W.‐P., Hryniewicz, A., Venzon, D., Zanetti, M., Reimann, K.A., Roederer, M., and Franchini, G. 2008. Reduced protection from simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 infection afforded by memory CD8+ T cells induced by vaccination during CD4+ T‐cell deficiency. J. Virol. 82:9629‐9638.
  Vaccari, M., Keele, B.F., Bosinger, S.E., Doster, M.N., Ma, Z.M., Pollara, J., Hryniewicz, A., Ferrari, G., Guan, Y., Forthal, D.N., Venzon, D., Fenizia, C., Morgan, T., Montefiori, D., Lifson, J.D., Miller, C.J., Silvestri, G., Rosati, M., Felber, B.K., Pavlakis, G.N., Tartaglia, J., and Franchini, G. 2013. Protection afforded by an HIV vaccine candidate in macaques depends on the dose of SIVmac251 at challenge exposure. J. Virol. 87:3538‐3548.
  Valentine, L.E., Loffredo, J.T., Bean, A.T., León, E.J., MacNair, C.E., Beal, D.R., Piaskowski, S.M., Klimentidis, Y.C., Lank, S.M., Wiseman, R.W., Weinfurter, J.T., May, G.E., Rakasz, E.G., Wilson, N.A., Friedrich, T.C., O'Connor, D.H., Allison, D.B., and Watkins, D.I. 2009. Infection with “escaped” virus variants impairs control of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 replication in Mamu‐B*08‐positive macaques. J. Virol. 83:11514‐11527.
  Van Damme, N., Goff, D., Katsura, C., Jorgenson, R.L., Mitchell, R., Johnson, M.C., Stephens, E.B., and Guatelli, J. 2008. The interferon‐induced protein BST‐2 restricts HIV‐1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein. Cell Host Microbe 3:245‐252.
  Van Rompay, K.K., Abel, K., Lawson, J.R., Singh, R.P., Schmidt, K.A., Evans, T., Earl, P., Harvey, D., Franchini, G., Tartaglia, J., Montefiori, D., Hattangadi, S., Moss, B., and Marthas, M.L. 2005. Attenuated poxvirus‐based simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines given in infancy partially protect infant and juvenile macaques against repeated oral challenge with virulent SIV. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 38:124‐134.
  VandeWoude, S. and Apetrei, C. 2006. Going wild: Lessons from naturally occurring T‐lymphotropic lentiviruses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:728‐762.
  Verthelyi, D., Kenney, R.T., Seder, R.A., Gam, A.A., Friedag, B., and Klinman, D.M. 2002. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as vaccine adjuvants in primates. J. Immunol. 168:1659‐1663.
  Virgen, C.A., Kratovac, Z., Bieniasz, P.D., and Hatziioannou, T. 2008. Independent genesis of chimeric TRIM5‐cyclophilin proteins in two primate species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105:3563‐3568.
  Walker, L.M., Phogat, S.K., Chan‐Hui, P.‐Y., Wagner, D., Phung, P., Goss, J.L., Wrin, T., Simek, M.D., Fling, S., Mitcham, J.L., Lehrman, J.K., Priddy, F.H., Olsen, O.A., Frey, S.M., Hammond, P.W., Kaminsky, S., Zamb, T., Moyle, M., Koff, W.C., Poignard, P., and Burton, D.R. 2009. Broad and potent neutralizing antibodies from an African donor reveal a new HIV‐1 vaccine target. Science 326:285‐289.
  Wang, Y., Bergmeier, L.A., Stebbings, R., Seidl, T., Whittall, T., Singh, M., Berry, N., Almond, N., and Lehner, T. 2009. Mucosal immunization in macaques upregulates the innate APOBEC 3G anti‐viral factor in CD4+ memory T cells. Vaccine 27:870‐881.
  Wang, Y. and Lehner, T. 2011. Induction of innate immunity in control of mucosal transmission of HIV. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS 6:398‐404.
  Weiler, A.M., Li, Q., Duan, L., Kaizu, M., Weisgrau, K.L., Friedrich, T.C., Reynolds, M.R., Haase, A.T., and Rakasz, E.G., 2008. Genital ulcers facilitate rapid viral entry and dissemination following intravaginal inoculation with cell‐associated simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. J. Virol. 82:4154‐4158.
  Wille‐Reece, U., Flynn, B.J., Loré, K., Koup, R.A., Kedl, R.M., Mattapallil, J.J., Weiss, W.R., Roederer, M., and Seder, R.A. 2005. HIV Gag protein conjugated to a Toll‐like receptor 7/8 agonist improves the magnitude and quality of Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses in nonhuman primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102:15190‐15194.
  Wilson, N.A., Reed, J., Napoe, G.S., Piaskowski, S., Szymanski, A., Furlott, J., Gonzalez, E.J., Yant, L.J., Maness, N.J., May, G.E., Soma, T., Reynolds, M.R., Rakasz, E., Rudersdorf, R., McDermott, A.B., O'Connor, D.H., Friedrich, T.C., Allison, D.B., Patki, A., Picker, L.J., Burton, D.R., Lin, J., Huang, L., Patel, D., Heindecker, G., Fan, J., Citron, M., Horton, M., Wang, F., Liang, X., Shiver, J.W., Casimiro, D.R., and Watkins, D.I. 2006. Vaccine‐induced cellular immune responses reduce plasma viral concentrations after repeated low‐dose challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. J. Virol. 80:5875‐5885.
  Wilson, S.J., Webb, B.L.J., Maplanka, C., Newman, R.M., Verschoor, E.J., Heeney, J.L., and Towers, G.J. 2008a. Rhesus macaque TRIM5alleles have divergent antiretroviral specificities. J. Virol. 82:7243‐7247.
  Wilson, S.J., Webb, B.L.J., Ylinen, L.M.J., Verschoor, E., Heeney, J.L., and Towers, G.J. 2008b. Independent evolution of an antiviral TRIMCyp in rhesus macaques. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105:3557‐3562.
  Wu, Y., Gao, F., Liu, J., Qi, J., Gostick, E., Price, D.A., and Gao, G.F. 2011. Structural basis of diverse peptide accommodation by the rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule Mamu‐B*17: Insights into immune protection from simian immunodeficiency virus. J. Immunol. 187:6382‐6392.
  Xiao, P., Zhao, J., Patterson, L.J., Brocca‐Cofano, E., Venzon, D., Kozlowski, P.A., Hidajat, R., Demberg, T., and Robert‐Guroff, M. 2010. Multiple vaccine‐elicited nonneutralizing antienvelope antibody activities contribute to protective efficacy by reducing both acute and chronic viremia following simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P challenge in rhesus macaques. J. Virol. 14:7161‐7173.
  Xiao, P., Patterson, L.J., Kuate, S., Brocca‐Cofano, E., Thomas, M.A., Venzon, D., Zhao, J., DiPasquale, J., Fenizia, C., Lee, E.M., Kalisz, I., Kalyanaraman, V.S., Pal, R., Montefiori, D., Keele, B.F., and Robert‐Guroff, M. 2012. Replicating adenovirus‐simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinant priming and envelope protein boosting elicits localized, mucosal IgA immunity in rhesus macaques correlated with delayed acquisition following a repeated low‐dose rectal SIVmac251 challenge. J. Virol. 86:4644‐4657.
  Yant, L.J., Friedrich, T.C., Johnson, R.C., May, G.E., Maness, N.J., Enz, A.M., Lifson, J.D., O'Connor, D.H., Carrington, M., and Watkins, D.I. 2006. The high‐frequency major histocompatibility complex class I allele Mamu‐B*17 is associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 replication. J. Virol. 80:5074‐5077.
  Yap, M.W., Nisole, S., Lynch, C., and Stoye, J.P. 2004. Trim5α protein restricts both HIV‐1 and murine leukemia virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:10786‐10791.
  Yeh, W.W., Rao, S.S., Lim, S.‐Y., Zhang, J., Hraber, P.T., Brassard, L.M., Luedemann, C., Todd, J.P., Dodson, A., Shen, L., Buzby, A.P., Whitney, J.B., Korber, B.T., Nabel, G.J., Mascola, J.R., and Letvin, N.L. 2011. The TRIM5 gene modulates penile mucosal acquisition of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys. J. Virol. 85:10389‐10398.
  Yu, Q., Jones, B., Hu, N., Chang, H., Ahmad, S., Liu, J., Parrington, M., and Ostrowski, M. 2006. Comparative analysis of tropism between canarypox (ALVAC) and vaccinia viruses reveals a more restricted and preferential tropism of ALVAC for human cells of the monocytic lineage. Vaccine 24:6376‐6391.
  Zhang, Z.‐Q., Fu, T.‐M., Casimiro, D.R., Davies, M.‐E., Liang, X., Schleif, W.A., Handt, L., Tussey, L., Chen, M., Tang, A., Wilson, K.A., Trigona, W.L., Freed, D.C., Tan, C.Y., Horton, M., Emini, E.A., and Shiver, J.W. 2002. Mamu‐A*01 allele‐mediated attenuation of disease progression in simian‐human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Virol. 76:12845‐12854.
  Zhao, J., Lai, L., Amara, R.R., Montefiori, D.C., Villinger, F., Chennareddi, L., Wyatt, L.S., Moss, B., and Robinson, H.L. 2009. Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS vaccines: Inverse correlation between avidity of anti‐Env antibodies and peak postchallenge viremia. J. Virol. 83:4102‐4111.
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library