Nonhuman Primate Models for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development

Yongjun Sui1, Shari Gordon1, Genoveffa Franchini1, Jay A. Berzofsky1

1 These authors contributed equally
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Immunology
Unit Number:  Unit 12.14
DOI:  10.1002/0471142735.im1214s102
Online Posting Date:  October, 2013
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The development of HIV vaccines has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that can accurately predict vaccine efficacy. Chimpanzees can be infected with HIV‐1 but are not practical for research. However, several species of macaques are susceptible to the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that cause disease in macaques, which also closely mimic HIV in humans. Thus, macaque‐SIV models of HIV infection have become a critical foundation for AIDS vaccine development. Here we examine the multiple variables and considerations that must be taken into account in order to use this nonhuman primate (NHP) model effectively. These include the species and subspecies of macaques, virus strain, dose and route of administration, and macaque genetics, including the major histocompatibility complex molecules that affect immune responses, and other virus restriction factors. We illustrate how these NHP models can be used to carry out studies of immune responses in mucosal and other tissues that could not easily be performed on human volunteers. Furthermore, macaques are an ideal model system to optimize adjuvants, test vaccine platforms, and identify correlates of protection that can advance the HIV vaccine field. We also illustrate techniques used to identify different macaque lymphocyte populations and review some poxvirus vaccine candidates that are in various stages of clinical trials. Understanding how to effectively use this valuable model will greatly increase the likelihood of finding a successful vaccine for HIV. Curr. Protoc. Immunol. 102:12.14.1‐12.14.30. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: vaccines; nonhuman primates; macaques; SIV; T cell immunity; animal models

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Species of Macaques
  • Challenge Virus
  • Route, Mode, and Dose of Virus Infection
  • Vaccine Candidates
  • Acknowledgments
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
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