Next‐Gen Sequencing‐Based Mapping and Identification of Ethyl Methanesulfonate‐Induced Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana

Xue‐Cheng Zhang1, Yves Millet2, Frederick M. Ausubel1, Mark Borowsky1

1 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, 2 Symbiota, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
Unit Number:  Unit 7.18
DOI:  10.1002/0471142727.mb0718s108
Online Posting Date:  October, 2014
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Forward genetic analysis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis has proven to be a powerful tool in biological research, but identification and cloning of causal mutations by conventional genetic mapping approaches is a painstaking process. Recent advances in next‐gen sequencing have greatly invigorated the process of identifying EMS‐induced mutations corresponding to a specific phenotype in model genetic hosts, including the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Next‐gen sequencing of bulked F2 mutant recombinants produces a wealth of high‐resolution genetic data, provides enhanced delimitation of the genomic location of mutations, and greatly reduces hands‐on time while maintaining high accuracy and reproducibility. In this unit, a detailed procedure to simultaneously map and identify EMS mutations in Arabidopsis is described. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. 108:7.18.1‐7.18.16. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: next‐gen sequencing; genetic mapping; ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)

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Table of Contents

  • Reagents and Solutions
  • Commentary
  • Figures
  • Tables
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Basic Protocol 1:

  • Young Arabidopsis leaves
  • Liquid nitrogen
  • Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) extraction buffer (see recipe)
  • 2‐mercaptoethanol
  • 10 mg/ml protease K
  • 25:24:1 phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, pH 8.0
  • Isopropanol
  • 70% and 80% ethanol
  • TE buffer, pH 8.0 (see recipe)
  • 10 mg/ml RNase A
  • 4 M LiCl
  • 600 U/ml T4 DNA ligase and ligation buffer
  • dNTPs, 10 mM each
  • 10,000 U/ml T4 polynucleotide kinase
  • 3000 U/ml T4 DNA polymerase
  • 5000 U/ml Klenow DNA polymerase (large fragment)
  • PCR purification kit (QIAquick, Qiagen)
  • 10× NEB no. 2 buffer
  • dATP, 100 mM
  • 5000 U/ml Klenow fragment, 3′‐5′ exo‐
  • Low‐melting‐point agarose
  • 10 mg/ml ethidium bromide
  • 1× TAE buffer
  • 6× DNA loading dye
  • 50‐bp DNA ladder
  • QIAquick gel extraction kit
  • 2× Phusion HF Mastermix (NEB)
  • High‐sensitivity DNA reagents
  • 0.5‐, 1.5‐, and 2‐ml microcentrifuge tubes
  • Plastic pestle or tissuelyzer
  • Vortexer
  • 55°C incubator
  • Benchtop and refrigerated centrifuges
  • NanoDrop microvolume spectrophotometer ( appendix 3J)
  • Covaris S2 sonicator
  • DNA sonication tube, e.g., Covaris MicroTube (6 × 16–mm) AFA fiber with snap‐cap round‐bottom glass tube
  • Thermal cycler
  • AMPure XP purification beads (Agencourt)
  • Magnetic separation stand
  • Scalpel
  • UV transilluminator
  • Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100
  • Additional reagents and equipment for DNA concentration measurements ( appendix 3J) and agarose gel electrophoresis (unit 2.5)
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Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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Key References
  Cuperus, J.T., Montgomery, T.A., Fahlgren, N., Burke, R.T., Townsend, T., Sullivan, C.M., and Carrington, J.C. 2010. Identification of MIR390a precursor processing‐defective mutants in Arabidopsis by direct genome sequencing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107:466‐471.
  This is a pioneering study that outlined the framework of genome resequencing‐based cloning of EMS mutations in Arabidopsis and provided technical details and computational scripts.
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