Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Cell Envelopes and Native Membrane Vesicles Derived from Gram‐Negative Bacteria

Ryszard A. Zielke1, Philip R. Gafken2, Aleksandra E. Sikora1

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 2 Proteomics Facility, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Microbiology
Unit Number:  Unit 1F.3
DOI:  10.1002/9780471729259.mc01f03s34
Online Posting Date:  August, 2014
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Abstract

Proteins localized to the cell envelope and naturally released membrane vesicles (MVs) play diverse functions in physiology and pathogenesis of Gram‐negative bacteria. Study of these proteome fractions is essential for better understanding the basic physiological processes, development of vaccines, and identification of potential drug targets. This unit presents gel‐free quantitative proteomic methods for comprehensive proteomic profiling of the cell envelopes and MVs. The procedure starts with the precipitation of the isolated proteome fractions to remove any potential compounds that may interfere with downstream experimental steps. Subsequently, the proteins are reduced, alkylated, and subjected to trypsin digestion. The trypsinized peptides are labeled using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), and analyzed samples are pooled and subjected to rigorous prefractionations by strong cation exchange (SCX) and reversed‐phase (RP) liquid chromatography (LC). Finally, the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation enables peptides identification and quantification. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 34:1F.3.1‐1F.3.16. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: cell envelope; native membrane vesicles; quantitative proteomics; iTRAQ; 2D‐LC‐MS/MS; bioinformatics

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Basic Protocol 1: Protein Precipitation
  • Basic Protocol 2: iTRAQ Labeling
  • Basic Protocol 3: Sample Cleanup
  • Basic Protocol 4: Two‐Dimensional HPLC and Mass Spectroscopy
  • Basic Protocol 5: Protein Identification and Bioinformatics
  • Reagents and Solutions
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Protein Precipitation

  Materials
  • Cell envelope, membrane vesicle fractions
  • Protein quantification kit (e.g., 2‐D‐Quant Kit, Bio‐Rad DC Protein Assay Kit)
  • 100% acetone
  • Refrigerated microcentrifuge or microcentrifuge placed in a cold room or a fridge
  • 1.5‐ml acetone‐compatible microcentrifuge tubes (e.g., polypropylene or polymethylpentene test tubes)

Basic Protocol 2: iTRAQ Labeling

  Materials
  • iTRAQ Reagents Mutliplex Kit (AB Sciex)
  • Sequencing Grade Modified Trypsin (Promega)
  • 100% ethanol
  • 0.1% Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution (see recipe)
  • H 2O (HPLC grade)
  • Centrifugal vacuum concentrator
  • Bench top centrifuge

Basic Protocol 3: Sample Cleanup

  Materials
  • Peptides labeled with iTRAQ reagents reconstituted in 0.1% TFA solution
  • H 2O (HPLC Grade)
  • Acetonitrile
  • 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution (see recipe)
  • 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in 70% acetonitrile (see recipe)
  • Sep‐Pak C18 columns (Waters)
  • 15‐ml conical tubes
  • 1.5‐ml microcentrifuge tubes

Basic Protocol 4: Two‐Dimensional HPLC and Mass Spectroscopy

  Materials
  • Buffer SCX A (see recipe)
  • Buffer SCX B (see recipe)
  • Buffer RP A (see recipe)
  • Buffer RP B (see recipe)
  • 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution (see recipe)
  • Matrix solution (see recipe)
  • Paradigm MG4 high‐pressure liquid chromatography system (Michrom Bioresources) with Varian ProStar fraction collector for strong cation exchange fractionation
  • Strong cation exchange column (2.1 mm × 150 mm Zorbax 300, Agilent)
  • Nano2D LC high‐pressure liquid chromatography system (AB Sciex) coupled to Dionex Probot MALDI spotter (Thermo Fisher Scientific)
  • NanoLC reverse‐phase column (75 μm × 250 mm) packed with Magic C 18AQ (5‐μm 100 Å resin; Michrom Bioresources)
  • Sep‐Pak C18 cartridges (1 cc/50 mg, Waters)
  • Centrifugal vacuum concentrator
  • Chromatography vials
  • 4800 Proteomics Analyzer (TOF/TOF; AB Sciex)
  • Opti‐TOF LC/MALDI blank insert plate (123 × 81 mm, AB Sciex)

Basic Protocol 5: Protein Identification and Bioinformatics

  Materials
  • ProteinPilot (AB SCIEX)
  • The proteome of the studied organism in FASTA format
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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