Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree

Michael Lea1

1 Clearinghouse: Low‐cost Water Treatment Technologies for Developing Countries, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Microbiology
Unit Number:  Unit 1G.2
DOI:  10.1002/9780471729259.mc01g02s16
Online Posting Date:  February, 2010
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Abstract

An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a water‐soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low‐cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for simplified, point‐of‐use, low‐risk water treatment where rural and peri‐urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 16:1G.2.1‐1G.2.14. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera; turbidity; natural coagulant; coagulation; flocculation; household water treatment; developing countries

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Strategic Planning
  • Basic Protocol 1: Household Seed Oil Extraction
  • Support Protocol 1: Simple Village Jar Test Procedures
  • Basic Protocol 2: Clarification of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract From M. oleifera
  • Additional Treatment Of Clarified Water
  • Support Protocol 2: Treatment by Biological Sand (Biosand) Filtration
  • Support Protocol 3: Disinfection by Natural pH Shift
  • Support Protocol 4: Disinfection by Solar Pasteurization
  • Support Protocol 5: Disinfection by Chlorination
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Household Seed Oil Extraction

  Materials
  • Moringa oleifera Lam. mature fruit pods
  • Boiling water
  • Household spice crusher (grinding stone or mortar)
  • Skillet
  • Pot
  • Skimmer utensil (e.g., ladle)
  • Cotton filter cloth
  • Clean containers

Support Protocol 1: Simple Village Jar Test Procedures

  Materials
  • Moringa oleifera Lam. mature fruit pods or presscake ( protocol 1)
  • 1 liter clean or previously clarified water
  • 2 to 3 liters raw source water
  • Household spice crusher (grinding stone or mortar)
  • 0.8‐mm mesh (e.g., tea strainer)
  • Muslin or cotton cloth
  • One 12‐in. ruler
  • One black marker pen
  • One pair of scissors or a knife
  • Five clean and transparent (not colored) plastic (soda) bottles (∼591 ml size), including bottle caps
  • One water storage container, e.g., plastic bucket, ∼20 liters (5 gallons)
  • Three people to stir one soda bottle each at the same time
  • Three paddle‐type utensils, e.g., spoon, ladle, spatula, or fork

Basic Protocol 2: Clarification of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract From M. oleifera

  Materials
  • Moringa oleifera Lam. mature fruit pods or presscake ( protocol 1)
  • 1 liter clean or previously clarified water
  • 20 liters (5 gallons) raw source water
  • Household spice crusher (grinding stone or mortar)
  • One clean and transparent (not colored) plastic (soda) bottle (∼591 ml size), including bottle cap
  • 0.8‐mm mesh (e.g., tea strainer)
  • Muslin or cotton filter cloth
  • One paddle‐type utensil, e.g., spoon, ladle, spatula or fork
  • One designated water collection container, e.g., plastic bucket or clay vessel, ∼20 liters (5 gallons)
  • One designated safe‐storage water container, e.g., plastic bucket or clay vessel, ∼20 liters (5 gallons)
NOTE: The following protocol is designed to treat 20 liters (∼5 gallons) of highly turbid (150 to 250 NTU) raw surface water (see Table 1.2.1).
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

   Bergman, M. and Arnoldsson, E. 2008. Assessment of Drinking Water Treatment using Moringa oleifera Natural Coagulant—A Minor Field Study in Maputo, Mozambique. Masters Thesis. Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
   Bratby, J., 2006. Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment, 2nd ed. IWA Publishing, London.
   Chen, S. and Ravallion, M. 2008. The Developing World is Poorer than We Thought, But No Less Successful in the Fight Against Poverty. The World Bank Development Research Group. Washington, D.C.
   Diouf, M., Gueye, M., Faye, B., Dieme, O., and Lo, C., 2007. The commodity systems of four indigenous leaf vegetables in Senegal. Water SA 33:343‐348.
   Doerr, B., 2005. Moringa Water Treatment: ECHO Technical Note. Education Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO), North Fort Myers, Fla.
   Dorea, C.C. 2006. Use of Moringa spp. seeds for coagulation: A review of a sustainable option. Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply 6:219‐227.
   Fahey, J.W. 2005. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Part 1. J. Phytochem. 47:123‐157.
   Folkard, G. and Sutherland, J. 2001. The Use of Moringa oleifera as a Natural Coagulant for Water and Wastewater Treatment. Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, U.K.
   Fuglie, L.J. 2000. New Uses of Moringa Studied in Nicaragua. ECHO Development Notes #68. Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO), North Fort Myers, Fla.
   Ives, K. and Jahn, S.A.A. 1994. Coagulation and Flocculation. Small Community Water Supplies: Technology, people and partnership TP40_14: 296‐312. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC), The Hague, The Netherlands. http://www.irc.nl/page/37789.
   Jahn, S.A.A. 1988. Using Moringa seeds as coagulants in developing countries. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 80:43‐50.
   Kalibbala, H.M. 2007. Application of Indigenous Materials in Drinking Water Treatment. Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm, Sweden.
   Katayon, S., Megat Mohd Noor, M.J., Asma, M., Thamer, A.M., Liew Abdullah, A.G., Idris, A., Suleyman, A.M., Aminuddin, M.B., and Khor, B.C. 2004. Effects of storage duration and temperature of Moringa oleifera stock solution on its performance in coagulation. Int. J. Engin. Technol. 1:146‐151.
   Levicki, K. 2005. A Catchment to Consumer Approach to Rural Water Resource Assessment: Baseline Study and Safe Drinking Water Supply Strategy for Orongo Village, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm, Sweden.
   Madsen, M., Schlundt, J., and Omer, E.F. 1987. Effect of water coagulation by seeds of Moringa oleifera on bacterial concentrations. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90:101‐109.
   Marobhe, N.J.M. 2008. Water Supply in Tanzania and Performance of Local Plant Materials in Purification of Turbid Water. Ph.D., Thesis. University of Stockholm, Sweden.
   Olayemi, A.B. and Alabi, R.O. 1994. Studies on traditional water purification using Moringa oleifera seeds. African Study Monographs 15:135‐142.
   Narasiah, K.S., Vogel, A. and Kramadhati, N.N. 2002. Coagulation of turbid waters using Moringa oleifera seeds from two distinct sources. Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply 2:83‐88.
   Ndabigengesere, A.I. and Narasiah, K.S. 1996. Influence of operating parameters on turbidity removal by coagulation with Moringa oleifera seeds. Environ. Technol. 17:1103‐1112.
   Price, M. 1985. The Moringa Tree. ECHO Technical Note (revised 2000 by Kristin Davis). Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO). North Fort Myers, Fla.
   Schwarz, D. 2000. Water Clarification using Moringa oleifera. Gate Information Service, Eschborn, Germany.
   Sobsey, M.D. 2002. Managing Water in the Home: Accelerated Health Gains from Improved Water Supply, prepared for the WHO Water Sanitation and Health Programme, Geneva, Switzerland.
   Suarez, M., Haenni, M., Canarelli, S., Fisch, F., Chodanowski, P., Servis, C., Michielin, O., Freitag, R., Moreillon, P., and Mermod, N., 2005. Structure‐function characterization and optimization of a plant‐derived antibacterial peptide. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 49:3847‐3857.
   Sutherland, J.P., Folkard, G.K., Mtawali, M.A., and Grant, W.D. 1994. Moringa oleifera as a Natural Coagulant. Affordable Water Supply & Sanitation: Proceedings of the 20th WEDC Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
   Taley, S. 2007. Moringa oleifera for Water Purification—a Traditional Boon for Rural Peoples. Stockholm Water Symposium, Workshop Poster. Stockholm, Sweden.
   Yazdani, I. 2007. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Containers as an Alternative to Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Bottles for Solar Disinfection of Drinking Water in Northern Region, Ghana. Masters Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Mass.
Key References
   Jahn, 1988. See above.
  The three references above provide practical information on Moringa and the treatment of water in developing countries.
  Madsen et al., . See above.
  The two references above describe leading‐edge research.
  Dorea, . See above.
   Suarez, M., Entenza, J.M., Doerries, C., Meyer, E., Bourquin, L., Sutherland, J., Marison, I., Moreillon, P., and Mermod, N. 2003. Expression of a plant‐derived peptide harboring water‐cleaning and antimicrobial activities. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 81:13‐20.
  Suarez et al., . See above.
Internet Resources
  http://www.deutsch‐aethiopischer‐verein.de/Gate_Moringa.pdf
  Gate Information Service. Provides the most comprehensive concise overview of water clarification using Moringa oleifera.
  http://www.treesforlife.org/our‐work/our‐initiatives/moringa
  Trees for Life International. A plethora of information including free access to Moringa books, posters, PowerPoint presentations and educational materials.
  http://www.solutionexchange‐un.net.in/environment/cr/res31010701.pdf
  Eric Lemetais's comprehensive but brief overview of M. oleifera, including map, photographs of Moringa seeds, and before and after depictions of water treatment.
  http://www.moringanews.org/index.html
  Moringa News. An international network of people interested in M. oleifera. Their Web site offers reliable information and a platform to exchange knowledge.
  http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/technical‐briefs/60‐water‐clarification‐using‐moringa‐oleifera‐seeds.pdf
  WELL: Resource Center Network for Water Sanitation and Environmental Health, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, U.K. This technical brief gives an overview of the application of an indigenous, naturally derived coagulant, namely seed material from the multi‐purpose tree Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) which offers an alternative solution to the use of expensive chemical coagulants.
  http://www.echotech.org/network/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=863
  Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO). Provides basic overview of steps for water treatment with M. oleifera.
  http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/Publications/techpublications/TechPub‐8a/natural.asp
  United Nations Environment Programme. UN's Moringa Technical Brief.
  http://www.farmradio.org/english/radio‐scripts/54‐11script_en.asp
  Farm Radio International. This script for radio broadcasters in developing countries is about using seeds from the Moringa tree (Moringa oleifera) to clean dirty water.
  http://tilz.tearfund.org/Publications/Footsteps+11‐20/Footsteps+20/Moringa+oleifera+A+multipurpose+tree.htm
  Tearfund International. Briefly describes M. oleifera multiple uses including household water treatment.
  http://www.atatwork.org/page/363
  AT@Work. This toolkit at link above explains the principles of doing business in poverty‐stricken (less than $1 a day) areas, offers a step‐by‐step business development approach, and provides practical tools, tips and background information.
  http://www.ifh‐homehygiene.org/2003/2library/low_res_water_paper.pdf
  Household Water Storage, Handling and Point‐of‐Use Treatment Report. A review commissioned by Internal Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene. This PDF paper reviews the range of simple, low‐cost physical and chemical treatment methods and systems for safe water collection, handling, and storage, along with the evidence which shows the extent to which water can be the source of disease outbreaks, and how point‐of‐use treatment and safe water storage can reduce the burden of diarrheal and other waterborne diseases.
  http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11763&page=247
  National Academies Press. Moringa chapter from Lost Crops of Africa: Volume 2. Great descriptive overview of M. oleifera.
  http://davesgarden.com/guide/pf/showimage/20749
  Excellent photographs of mature Moringa seeds within the fruit pod. Other general photographs of nice quality are included.
  http://www.moringanews.org/documents/WaterGB.pdf
  An illustrative depiction of preparing Moringa oleifera seeds for water treatment. Though outdated, it explains the major steps nicely.
  http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/pdf/dw/publications/ontap/2009_tb/jar_testing_DWFSOM73.pdf
  National Environmental Services Center. Nice technical brief about jar testing. Includes “how to build a simple jar tester” schematic.
  http://www.amazines.com/article_detail.cfm/592163?articleid=592163&title=Moringa%2CSajina%2Cphytichemicals%2Cplant%2Cextract
  Article by Dewan Md. Badruddoza: Moringa oleifera: Its Phytochemicals and Their Usage. Crop Protection and Toxicology Laboratory, Dept. of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa_oleifera
  Wikipedia entry for Moringa oleifera, accessed Nov. 24, 2008.
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