Extracranial Carotid Artery Disease

E. Mark Haacke1, Daniel Kido2, Karen Tong2

1 The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, St. Louis, Missouri, 2 Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit A1.3
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mia0103s07
Online Posting Date:  February, 2003
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Abstract

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a noninvasive means for studying the integrity of the vascular system. This unit presents a basic protocol describing an MRA technique for imaging the carotid arteries, time‐of‐flight MRA, and an for contrast‐enhanced MRA. A second basic protocol based on high‐resolution spin‐echo scanning is also described. This protocol can be used to study the vessel wall in more detail. The parameters given here are derived from experience at 1.5 T and may need to be altered slightly depending on the field strength and the equipment manufacturer. In particular, optimal TE may vary with different field strength.

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Basic Protocol 1: Imaging the Carotid Arteries by Time‐of‐Flight MRA
  • Alternate Protocol 1: Imaging the Carotid Artery by Contrast‐Enhanced Time‐of‐flight MRA
  • Basic Protocol 2: Imaging Blood Vessel Walls by Spin‐Echo MRA
  • Commentary
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Imaging the Carotid Arteries by Time‐of‐Flight MRA

  Materials
  • Gadolinium‐based MR contrast agent (e.g., Magnevist, Omniscan, or Prohance)
  • Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), sterile
  • Power injector
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Anderson, C.M., Edelman, R.R., and Tarshi, P.A. (eds.) 1993. Clinical Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Raven Press, New York.
   Haacke, E.M. and Masaryk, T.J. 1989. The salient features of MR angiography. Radiology 173:611‐612.
   Haacke, E.M., Brown, R.W., Venkatesan, R., and Thompson, M.R. 1999. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Sequence Design. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
   Potchen, J.E., Haacke, E.M., Siebert, J.E., and Gottschalk, A. (eds.) 1992. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis.
   Prince, M.R., Chenevert, T.L., Foo, T.K., Londy, F.J., Ward, J.S., and Maki, J.H. 1997. Contract enhanced abdominal MR angiography: Optimization of imaging delay time by automating the detection of contrast material arrival in the aorta. Radiology 203:109‐114.
   Raynaud, J.‐S., Bridal, S.L., Toussaint, J.‐F., Fornès, P., Lebon, V., Berger, G., and Leroy‐Willig, A. 1998. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque components by high resolution quantitative MR and US imaging. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 8:622‐629.
   Shellock, F.G. 2001. Pocket Guide to MR Procedures and Metallic Objects. Lippincott‐Raven, Philadelphia.
   Wilman, A.H., Riederer, S.J., Huston, J., 3rd., Wald, J.T., and Debbins, J.P. 1998. Arterial phase carotid and vertebral artery imaging in 3‐D contrast‐enhanced MR angiography by combining fluoroscopic triggering with an elliptical centric acquisition order. Magn. Reson. Med. 40:24‐35.
   Yuan, C., Skinner, M.P., Kaneki, E., Mitsumori, L.M., Hayes, C.E., Raines, E.W., Nelson, J.A., and Ross, R. 1996. Magnetic resonance imaging to study lesions of atherosclerosis in the hyper‐lipidemic rabbit aorta. Magn. Reson. Imaging 14:93‐102.
Internet Resources
  http://www.mravvh.com
  Vascular Visible Human Project, providing an overview of MRA imaging for different parts of the body.
  http://www.mrisafety.com
  Covers a number of important patient management issues related to MR imaging, including recommended safety procedures, a list of metallic implants that have been tested for MR compatibility, and a list of other sources on MR safety.
Key References
   Potchen, E.J., Haacke, E.M., Siebert, J.E., and Gottschalk, A. 1993. Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Concepts and Applications. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis.
  Contains detailed descriptions of the technical aspects of magnetic resonance angiography, as well as numerous clinical examples.
   Shellock, F.G. 2001. Magnetic Resonance Procedures: Health effects and safety. CRC Press, Fla.
  Covers a number of important patient management issues related to MR imaging, including recommended safety procedures, a list of metallic implants that have been tested for MR compatibility, and a list of other sources on MR safety.
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library