Rule Out (R/O) Arteriovenous Malformation

L. Kirkland Conrad1, Steven Thibodeau1, Ellen Grant1

1 Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit A1.5
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mia0105s13
Online Posting Date:  May, 2005
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Abstract

When imaging patients for intracranial arteriovenous malformations, the goals are: (1) to determine if an arteriovenous malformation is present; (2) to assess size, shape, and location of the nidus; (3) to determine potential arterial feeders and venous drainage routes (including screening for aneurysms on arterial feeders); and (4) to determine the state of the surrounding brain parenchyma, including the identification of intracranial hemorrhage. A post‐contrast 3‐D spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence is used for sequences 1 to 3. Standard MR imaging sequences are used to evaluate the brain parenchyma. The protocol contained within this unit can be used for the evaluation of stable patients. In order to perform the optional sequences with perfusion and diffusion studies, a scanner with echoplanar capabilities is required; however, the standard anatomical MR imaging sequences included in the protocols do not require these faster gradients.

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1:

  Materials
  • Gadolinium‐based MR contrast agent (e.g., Magnevist, Omniscan, Prohance)
  • Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), sterile
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Kondziolka, D., Lunsford, L.D., Kanal, E., and Talagala, L. 1994. Stereotactic magnetic resonance angiography for targeting in arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery. Neurosurgery 35:585‐590; discussion 590‐591.
   Nussel, F., Wegmuller, H., and Huber, P. 1991. Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and conventional angiography in cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Neuroradiology 33:56‐61.
   Schlemmer, H.P., Hess, T., Debus, J., Knopp, M.V., Schad, L.R., and Engenhart, R. 1994. TOF‐MR angiography in radiotherapy treated cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Radiologe 34:447‐453.
   Shellock, F.G. 1996. Pocket Guide to MR Procedures and Metallic Objects. Lippincott‐Raven, Philadelphia.
   Yano, T., Kodama, T., Suzuki, Y., and Watanabe, K. 1997. Gadolinium‐enhanced 3D time‐of‐flight MR angiography. Experimental and clinical evaluation. Acta Radiol. 38:47‐54.
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