Intra‐Axial Primary Brain Tumors

Annette O. Nusbaum1, Scott W. Atlas2

1 New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, 2 Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit A3.3
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mia0303s00
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
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The majority of primary brain tumors in adults are found in the supratentorial compartment, while tumors in pediatric patients are usually infratentorial in location. This unit presents basic protocols for imaging all types of primary intra‐axial brain tumors, whether infiltrative (i.e., astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, lymphoma) or circumscribed (i.e., ganglioglioma, cystic astrocytoma). Specific modifications are discussed where necessary. The sequences described in this unit are based on a 1.5 T scanner (Echospeed GE Medical Systems), but can be expected to be equally applicable to other field strengths and scanners from other manufacturers.

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Table of Contents

  • Basic Protocol 1: Rule Out (R/O) Primary Cerebral Tumor
  • Alternate Protocol 1: Optional Sequences
  • Basic Protocol 2: R/O Primary Cerebellar and Brainstem Tumor
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
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Basic Protocol 1: Rule Out (R/O) Primary Cerebral Tumor

  • Intravenous contrast agent (e.g., Magnevist, Omniscan, or Prohance)
  • Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), sterile
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Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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   Atlas, S.W., Mark, A.S., Grossman, R.I., Gomori, J.M. 1988. Intracranial hemorrhage: Gradient‐echo MR imaging at 1.5 T. Radiology 168:803‐807.
   Atlas, S.W. and Lavi, E. 1996. Intra‐axial brain tumors. In Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain and Spine, 2nd Edition. (S.W. Atlas, ed.). pp. 315‐422. Lippincott‐Raven, Philadelphia.
   Legler, J.M., Gloeckler Ries, L.A., Smith, M.A., Warren, M.A., Warren, J.L., Heineman, E.F., Kaplan, R.S., and Linet, M.S. 1991. Brain and other central nervous system cancers: Recent trends in incidence and mortality. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91:1382‐1390.
   Meyer, M.E., Pipas, J.M., Mamourian, A., Tosteson, T.D., and Dunn, J.F. 1999. Classification of biopsy‐confirmed brain tumors using single‐voxel MR spectroscopy. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 20:117‐123.
   Shellock, F.G. 1996. Pocket Guide to MR Procedures and Metallic Objects. Lippincott‐Raven, Philadelphia.
   Sijens, P.E., van den Bent, M.J., Nowak, P.J., van Dijk, P., and Ouderk, M. 1997. 1H chemical shift imaging reveals loss of brain tumor choline signal after administration of Gd‐contrast. Magn. Reson. Med. 37:222‐225.
   Singer, M.B., Atlas, S.W., and Drayer, B.P. 1998. Subarachnoid space disease: Diagnosis with fluid‐attenuated inversion‐recovery MR imaging and comparison with gadolinium‐enhanced spin echo MR imaging‐blinded reader study. Radiology 208:417‐422.
   Stejskal, E.O. and Tanner, J.E. 1965. Spin diffusion measurements: spin echoes in the presence of time‐dependent field gradient. J. Chem. Phys. 42:288‐292.
   Tien, R.D., Flesberg, G.J., Friedman, H., Brown, H., and MacFall, J. 1994. MR imaging of high‐grade cerebral gliomas: value of diffusion‐weighted echoplanar pulse sequences. Am. J. Roentgenol. 162:671‐677.
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