Extra‐Axial Tumors

Annette O. Nusbaum1, Scott W. Atlas2

1 New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, 2 Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit A3.4
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mia0304s00
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
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Abstract

Extra‐axial tumors most commonly arise from the meninges, calvarium, or skull base. Localization of a lesion as extra‐axial or extra‐cerebral in origin has significant clinical importance in terms of treatment planning and predicting prognosis. High‐resolution fat‐suppressed imaging is crucial for specific evaluation of the skull base, and correlation with computed tomography (CT) is often helpful in these cases. This unit presents basic MRI protocols for imaging extra‐axial tumors in specific locations; sequence modifications are discussed where necessary. The sequences described in this unit are based on a 1.5 T scanner (GE Medical Systems), but can be expected to be equally applicable to other field strengths and scanners from other manufacturers.

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Basic Protocol 1: Rule out (R/O) Extra‐Axial Tumor
  • Alternate Protocol 1: Meningioma
  • Alternate Protocol 2: Nerve Sheath Tumors—E.G., Acoustic Neuroma
  • Alternate Protocol 3: Pituitary/Sella Turcica Masses
  • Alternate Protocol 4: Arachnoid cyst
  • Alternate Protocol 5: Epidermoid/Dermoid
  • Alternate Protocol 6: Chondrosarcoma/Chordoma
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Rule out (R/O) Extra‐Axial Tumor

  Materials
  • Intravenous contrast agent (e.g., Magnevist, Omniscan, Prohance)
  • Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), sterile
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Beneviste, H., Hedlund, L., and Johnson, G. 1992. Mechanism of detection of acute cerebral ischemia in rats by diffusion‐weighted magnetic resonance microscopy. Stroke 23:746‐754.
   Shellock, F.G. 1996. Pocket Guide to MR Procedures and Metallic Objects. (F.G. Shellock, ed.). Lippincott‐Raven, Philadelphia.
   Singer, M.B., Atlas, S.W., and Drayer, B.P. 1998. Subarachnoid space disease: Diagnosis with fluid‐attenuated inversion‐recovery MR imaging and comparison with gadolinium‐enhanced spin echo MR imaging‐blinded reader study. Radiology 208:417‐422.
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