Paradigms for Clinical fMRI

Keith R. Thulborn1, Denise Davis1

1 University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit A6.3
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mia0603s00
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
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This unit presents description of four basic clinical paradigms for clinical fMRI of language cmprehension, eye movement (visually guidede saccades), motor cortex (finger‐thumb apposition), and visual cortex. Given the neurosurgical concern with preservation of eloquent cortex, brain functions of particular interest are primary sensory (e.g., visual, auditory) and motor functions, and high level processing of language comprehension and expression. Compromise of these functions is usually readily apparent clinically and the quality of life of the patient is severely diminished. Functional MRI offers a means to locate these functions, thereby allowing the surgeon to plan on preserving these functions, or prepare the patient appropriately.

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Table of Contents

  • Paradigms
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
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Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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   Booth, J.R., MacWhinney, B., Thulborn, K.R., Sacco, K., Voyvodic, J., and Feldman, H.M. 1999. Functional organization of activation patterns in children: Whole brain fMRI imaging during three different cognitive tasks. Prog. Neuro‐Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 23:669‐682.
   Just, M.A., Carpenter, P.A., Keller, T.A., Eddy, W.F., and Thulborn, K.R. 1996. Brain activation modulated by sentence comprehension. Science 274:114‐116.
   Luna, B., Thulborn, K.R., Strojwas, M.H., McCurtain, B.J., Berman, R.A., Genovese, C.R., and Sweeney, J.A. 1998. Dorsal cortical regions subserving visually‐guided saccades in humans: A fMRI study. Cereb. Cortex 8:40‐47.
   Luna, B. and Sweeney, J.A. 1999. Cognitive functional magnetic resonance imaging at very‐high‐field: Eye movement control. Topics Magn. Reson. Imaging 10:3‐15.
   Marquart, M., Birn, R., and Haughton, V. 2000. Single‐ and multiple‐event paradigms for identification of motor cortex activation. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 21:94‐98.
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   Rosen, B.R., Buckner, R.L., and Dale, A.M. 1998. Event‐related functional MRI: Past present and future. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.U.S.A. 95:773‐780.
   Thulborn, K.R. 1999. Clincal rationale for very high field (3.0 Tesla) functional MR imaging. Topics Magn. Reson. Imaging 10:37‐50.
   Thulborn, K.R., Carpenter, P.A., and Just, M.A. 1999a. Plasticity of language‐related brain function during recovery from stroke. Stroke 30:749‐754.
   Thulborn, K.R., Gindin, T.S., Davis, D., and Erb, P. 1999b. Comprehensive MRI protocol for stroke management: Tissue sodium concentration as a measure of tissue viability in a non‐human primate model and clinical studies. Radiology 139:26‐34.
   Thulborn, K.R., Martin, C., and Voyvodic, J. 2000. fMRI using a visually guided saccade paradigm in Alzheimer's disease. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 21:524‐531.
   Wessinger, C.M., Buonocore, M.H., Kussmaul, C.L., and Mangun, G.R. 1997. Tonotopy in human auditory cortex examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Human Brain Mapp. 5:18‐25.
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