Cranial Nerves IX To XII

Robert W. Evers1, David M. Yousem1

1 The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit A7.4
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mia0704s00
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
GO TO THE FULL TEXT: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Abstract

Cranial nerves IX to XII are rarely affected by pathology compared with cranial nerves III, V, VII, and VIII. Nonetheless, their evaluation is challenging, since lesions of these nerves span the gamut from intracranial to extracranial sites. Imaging of these cranial nerves requires a focused approach based on clinical symptomatology and signs. This unit presents the basic protocol for imaging cranial nerves IX to XII. An alternate protocol is presented for cases where non‚Äźneoplastic lesions are considered.

     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Table of Contents

  • Basic Protocol 1: Imaging of Cranial Nerves IX‐XII
  • Alternate Protocol 1: Imaging of Cranial Nerves IX to XII Where non‐Neoplastic Lesions are Suspected
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Tables
     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Imaging of Cranial Nerves IX‐XII

  Materials
  • Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), sterile
  • Gadolinium‐based MR contrast agent (e.g., Magnevist, Omniscan, or Prohance)
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Castillo, M. and Mukherji, S.K. 1996. Magnetic resonance imaging of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII. Top. Magn. Reson. Imaging 8:180‐186.
   Chong, V.F. and Fan, Y.F. 1996. Jugular foramen involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Laryngol. Otol. 110:987‐90.
   Karpati, R.L., Loevner, L.A., Cunning, D.M., Yousem, D.M., Li, S., and Weber, R.S. 1998. Synchronous hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic nervous system plexus schwannomas. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 171(6):1505‐1507.
   Ortiz, O. and Reed, L. 1995. Spinal accessory nerve schwannoma involving the jugular foramen. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 16:986‐989.
   Pribitkin, E.A., Rondinella, L., Rosenberg, S., and Yousem, D.M. 1994. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: An underdiagnosed cause of sensorineural hearing loss and ataxia. Am. J. Otol. 15:415‐418.
   Rubinstein, D., Burton, B.S., and Walker, A.L. 1995. The anatomy of theinferior petrosal sinus, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, and accessory nerve in the jugular foramen. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 16:185‐194.
   Russo, C.P., Smoker, W.R., Weissman, J.L. 1997. MR appearance of trigeminal and hypoglossal motor denervation. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 18:1375‐1383.
   Shellock, F.G. 1996. Pocket Guide to MR Procedures and Metallic Objects. Lippincott‐Raven, Philadelphia.
   Thompson, E.O. and Smoker, W.R. 1994. Hypoglossal nerve palsy: a segmental approach. Radiographics 14:939‐958.
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library