MRI of the Liver

Laurie Fisher1, Richard Semelka2, Kathy Wilber2

1 Siemens Uptime Service Center, Cary, North Carolina, 2 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit A15.1
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mia1501s00
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
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Abstract

MRI provides comprehensive information on the full range of liver diseases, including congenital abnormalities, benign and malignant focal liver lesions, and diffuse liver disease. This unit presents a protocol that incorporates various types of T1‐and T2‐weighted sequences, including transverse and coronal data acquisition, and the routine use of intravenous gadolinium.

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Basic Protocol 1: Liver Imaging
  • Commentary
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Liver Imaging

  Materials
  • Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), sterile, 40 ml minimum
  • Extravascular contrast agent (e.g., Magnevist, Omniscan, or Prohance), volume by patient weight
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Larson, R.E., Semelka, R.C., Bagley, A.S., Molina, P.L., Brown, E.D., and Lee, J.K. 1994. Hypervascular malignant liver lesions; comparison of various MR imaging pulse sequences and dynamic CT. Radiology 192:393‐399.
   Low, R.N., Francis, I.R., Sigeti, J.S., and Foo, T.K. 1993. Abdominal MR imaging: Comparison of T2 ‐weighted fast conventional spin‐echo and contrast‐enhanced fast multiplanar spoiled gradient‐recalled imaging. Radiology 186:803‐811.
   Low, R.N., Semelka, R.C., Worawattankul, S., Alzate, G.D., and Sigeti, J.S. 1999. Extra hepatic abdominal imaging in patients with malignancy: Comparison of MR imaging and helical CT with subsequent surgical correlation. Radiology 210:625‐632.
   Oi, H., Murakami, T., Kim, T., Matsushita, M., Kishimoto, H., and Nakamura, H. 1996. Dynamic MR imaging and early‐phase helical CT for detection small intrahepatic metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 366:36‐374.
   Rofsky, N.M., Lee, V.S., Laub, G., Pollack, M.A., Krinsky, G.A., Thomasson, D., Ambrosino, M.M., and Weinreb, J.C. 1999. Abdominal MR imaging with a volumetric interpolated breath‐hold examination. Radiology 212:876‐884.
   Semelka, R.C. and Kelekis, N.L. 1997. Liver. In MRI of the Abdomen and Pelvis. A Text‐Atlas. (R.C. Semelka, S.M. Ascher, C. Reinhold eds.) pp. 19‐135. Wiley‐Liss, New York.
   Semelka, R.C., Shoenut, J.P., Kroeker, M.A., Greenberg, H.M., Simm, F.C., Minuk, G.Y., Kroeker, R.M., and Micflikier, A.B. 1992. Focal liver disease:Comparison of dynamic contrast‐enhanced CT and T2‐weighted fat suppressed, FLASH and dynamic gadolinium‐enhanced MR imaging at 1.5T. Radiology 184:687‐694.
   Semelka, R.C., Cumming, M.J., Shoenut, J.P., Magro, C.M., Yaffe, C.S., Kroeker, M.A., and Greenberg, H.M. 1993. Islet cell tumors: Comparison of dynamic contrast‐enhanced CT and MR imaging with dynamic gadolinium enhancement and fat suppression. Radiology 186:799‐802.
   Semelka, R.C., Willms, A.B., Brown, M.A., Brown, E.D., and Finn, J.P. 1994. Comparison of breath‐hold T1 ‐weighted MR sequences for imaging of the liver. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 4:759‐765.
   Semelka, R.C., Worawattanakul, S., Kelekis, N.L., John, G., Woosley, J.T., Graham, M., and Cance, W.G. 1997. Liver lesion detection, characterization, and effect on patient management; comparison of single‐phase spiral CT and current MR techniques. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7:1040‐1047.
   Semelka, R.C., Balci, N.C., Op de Beeck, B., and Reinhold, C. 1999. Evaluation of a 10‐minute comprehensive MR imaging examination of the upper abdomen. Radiology 211:189‐195.
   Shellock, F.G. 1996. Pocket Guide to MR Procedures and Metallic Objects. Lippincott‐Raven, Philadelphia.
   Whitney, W.S., Herfkens, R.J., Jeffrey, R.B., McDonnell, C.H., Li, K.C., Van Dalsem, W.J., Low, R.N., Francis, I.R., Dabatin, J.F., and Glazer, G.M. 1993. Dynamic breath‐hold multiplanar spoiled gradient‐recalled MR imaging with gadolinium enhancement for differentiating hepatic hemangiomas from malignancies at 1.5T. Radiology 189:863‐870.
   Yamashita, Y., Mitsuzaki, K., Yi, T., Ogata, I., Nishiharu, T., Urata, J., and Takahashi, M. 1996. Small hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver damage: Prospective comparison of detection with dynamic MR imaging and helical CT of the whole liver. Radiology 200:79‐84.
Key References
   Shellock 1996. See above.
  Covers a number of important patient management issues related to MR imaging, including recommended safety procedures, a list of metallic implants that have been tested for MR compatibility, and a list of other sources on MR safety.
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