Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Russell N. Low1

1 Sharp and Children's MRI Center, San Diego, California
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit A29.1
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mia2901s12
Online Posting Date:  July, 2004
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Abstract

MRI provides comprehensive information on gastrointestinal diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and malignant processes. We employ a set protocol incorporating breath‐hold SS RARE imaging combined with gadolinium‐enhanced, fat‐suppressed SPGR imaging in the transverse and coronal planes. Bowel distension is accomplished with inexpensive water‐soluble intraluminal contrast agents.

Keywords: Crohn's disease; gadolinium‐enhanced; breath‐hold sequences

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1:

  Materials
  • Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), sterile, 40 ml minimum
  • Extravascular contrast agent (e.g., Magnevist, Omniscan, or Prohance)
  • Water with mannitol or Metamucil
For additional items, see Table 29.1.1.
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Kettritz, U., Isaacs, K., Warshauer, D.M., and Semelka, R.C. 1995a. Crohn's disease: Pilot study comparing MRI of the abdomen with clinical evaluation. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 21:249‐253.
   Kettritz, U., Shoenut, J.P., and Semelka, R.C. 1995b. MR imaging of the gastrointestinal tract. Magn. Reson. Imaging Clin. N. Am. 3:87‐98.
   Lee, J.K.T., Marcos, H.B., and Semelka, R.C. 1998. MR Imaging of the small bowel using the HASTE sequence. Am. J. Roentgenol. 170:1457‐1463.
   Low, R.N. and Francis, I.R. 1997. MR imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with IV gadolinium and diluted barium oral contrast media compared with unenhanced MR imaging and CT. Am. J. Roentgenol. 169:1051‐1059.
   Low, R.N., Francis, I.R., Politoske, D., and Bennett, M. 1999. Crohn's disease evaluation: Comparison of contrast‐enhanced MR imaging and single phase helical CT scanning. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 11:127‐135.
   Low, R.N., Sebrechts, C.P., Politoske, D.A., Bennett, M.T., Flores, S., Snyder, R.J., and Pressman, J.H. 2002. Crohn Disease with endoscopic correlation: Single‐shot fast spin‐echo and gadolinium‐enhanced fat‐suppressed spoiled gradient‐echo MR imaging. Radiology 222:652‐660.
   Maglinte, D.D., Gourtsoyiannis, N., Rex, D., Howard, T.J., and Kelvin, F.M. 2003. Classification of small bowel Crohn's subtypes based on multimodality imaging. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 41:285‐303.
   Prassopoulos, P., Papanikolaou, N., Grammatikakis, J., Rousomoustakaki, M., Maris, T., and Gourtsoyiannis, N. 2001. MR enteroclysis imaging of Crohn disease. Radiographics 21:Spec No:S161‐S172.
   Regan, F., Beall, D.P., Bohlman, M.E., Khazan, R., Sufi, A., and Schaefer, D.C. 1998. Fast MR imaging and the detection of small‐bowel obstruction. Am. J. Roentgenol. 170:1465‐1469.
   Schunk, K. 2002. Small bowel magnetic resonance imaging for inflammatory bowel disease. Top. Magn. Reson. Imaging 13:409‐425.
   Shellock, F.G. 2001. Pocket Guide to MR Procedures and Metallic Objects. Lippincott‐Raven, Philadelphia.
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