Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Yu‐Chung Norman Cheng1, E. Mark Haacke2

1 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 2 The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, Michigan
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Unit Number:  Unit B7.3
DOI:  10.1002/0471142719.mib0703s07
Online Posting Date:  February, 2003
GO TO THE FULL TEXT: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Abstract

The “flow compensation” of moving spins is necessary to visualize blood in MR imaging. This unit discusses the effects of blood flow in detail, particularly in regard to obtaining an accurate measurement of the blood vessel lumen (the interior dimensions of the vessel). The imaging of blood vessels (arteries and veins) is often referred to as magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Table of Contents

  • Overview
  • Technical Discussion
  • Key References
  • Figures
     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Materials

GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Key References
   Anderson, C.M., Edelman, R.R., and Turski, P.A. (eds.) 1993. Clinical Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Raven Press, New York
  This reference reviews the basic concepts behind time‐of‐flight and phase contrast imaging as well as numerous aspects of MR angiography.
   Edelman, R.R., Ahn, S.S., Chien, D., Li, W., Goldmann, A., Mantello, M., Kramer, J., and Kleefield, J. 1992. Improved time‐of‐flight MR angiography of the brain with magnetization transfer contrast. Radiology 184:395.
  This paper applied the use of magnetization transfer contrast to MRA.
   Gao, J.H., Holland, S.K., and Gore, J.C. 1988. Nuclear magnetic resonance signal from flowing nuclei in rapid imaging using gradient echoes. Med. Phys. 15:809.
  Introductory discussions of blood saturation during 2‐D and 3‐D time‐of‐flight appear in this article.
   Haacke, E.M., Brown, R.W., Thompson, M.R., and Venkatesan, R. 1999. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Sequence Design. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  This paper covers the technical aspects presented here, but in more detail, and also discusses more advanced materials.
   Haacke, E.M., Masaryk, T.J., Weilopolski, P.A., Zypman, F.R., Tkach, J.A., Amartur, S., Mitchell, J., Clampitt, M., and Paschal, C. 1990. Optimizing blood vessel contrast in fast three‐dimensional MRI. Magn. Reson. Med. 14:202.
  Introductory discussions of blood saturation during 2‐D and 3‐D time‐of‐flight appear in this paper.
   Lin, W., Haacke, E.M., Smith, A.S., and Clampitt, M.E. 1992. Gadolinium‐enhanced high resolution MR angiography with adaptive vessel tracking: preliminary results in intracranial circulation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2:277.
  This paper proposed the ability to use contrast agents to enhance vessel visibility.
   Marchal, G., Bosmans, H., Van Hecke, P., Jiang, Y.B., Aerts, P., and Bauer, H. 1991. Experimental Gd‐DTPA polylysine enhanced MR angiography: sequence optimization. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 15:711.
  This article proposed the ability to use contrast agents to enhance vessel visibility.
   Pike, G.B., Hu, B.S., Glover, G.H., and Enzmann, D.R. 1992. Magnetization transfer time‐of‐flight magnetic resonance angiography. Magn. Reson. Med. 25:372.
  This article applied the use of magnetization transfer contrast to MRA.
   Potchen, E.J., Haacke, E.M., Siebert, J.E., and Gottschalk, A., (eds.) 1993. Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Concepts & Applications. Mosby‐Year Book, St. Louis.
  This book reviews the basic concepts behind time‐of‐flight and phase contrast imaging as well as numerous aspects of MR angiography.
   Prince, M.R., Yucel, E.K., Kaufman, J.A., Harrison, D.C., and Geller, S.C. 1993. Dynamic gadolinium‐enhanced three‐dimensional abdominal MR arteriography. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 3:877.
  This text proposed the ability to use contrast agents to enhance vessel visibility.
   Wolff, S.D. and Balaban, R.S. 1989. Magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) and tissue water proton relaxation in vivo. Magn. Reson. Med. 10:135.
  This paper proposed the use of magnetization transfer contrast to suppress background tissue.
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library