Methods for Studying Rodent Intestinal Lipoprotein Production and Metabolism

Alison B. Kohan1, Philip N. Howles1, Patrick Tso1

1 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Unit Number:   
DOI:  10.1002/9780470942390.mo120049
Online Posting Date:  September, 2012
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Abstract

Lipid absorption begins with the digestion of dietary triacylglycerol and ultimately results in the secretion of triacylglycerol in chylomicrons into the lymphatics. Additionally, the intestine also secretes numerous proteins and peptides involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in response to food. Ultimately, chylomicrons and these proteins, peptides, and hormones are found in lymph. The lymph fistula rat model has traditionally been used to study this intestinal absorption of nutrients, especially lipids, but recently, this model has also been used for studying the secretion of hormones by the small intestine. The protocols described in this unit include the lymph fistula rat and mouse model, as well as in vivo chylomicron metabolism studies. These experimental models are helpful for the study of metabolic phenotypes, the characterization of intestinal lipid absorption and transport, and determining peripheral metabolism of intestinally derived lipoproteins. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 2:219‐230 © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: lipids; lipoproteins; chylomicrons; lymph; mouse; lymph fistula model

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Basic Protocol 1: Lymph Fistula in the Rat
  • Basic Protocol 2: Lymph Fistula in the Mouse
  • Basic Protocol 3: In Vivo Chylomicron Metabolism Assay
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Lymph Fistula in the Rat

  Materials
  • Adult male rats, 280 to 250 g
  • Inhaled anesthetic (recommended: isoflurane, e.g., from Butler Schein) and necessary equipment to administer anesthetic
  • Liposyn III (Hospira) or olive oil (food grade), optional
  • Cyanoacrylate adhesive (Krazy Glue)
  • Sterile normal saline with 5% glucose
  • Ice
  • Mixed meal bolus (e.g., Ensure, Abbott Nutrition; 3.125 kcal/animal – 0.075 g fat (21.6%), 0.5 g carbohydrate (64.0%), 0.1125 g protein (14.4%)
  • 0.9% sterile saline
  • Sterile surgical equipment including:
  • Fine forceps
  • Iris scissors
  • Drapes
  • Lighting
  • Heating pad
  • PVC cannula (highly recommended): o.d 0.80 × i.d. 0.5 mm (Critchley Electrical Products Pty)
  • Duodenal infusion tube (e.g., 0.040‐in. i.d. × 0.085‐in. o.d; VWR, cat. no. 60985‐708)
  • Temperature‐controlled recovery housing
  • Peristaltic pump; low flow (1 to 10 ml)
  • 1.5‐ml microcentrifuge tubes
  • Conical vials suitable for lymph collection

Basic Protocol 2: Lymph Fistula in the Mouse

  Materials
  • Adult C57BL/6 mice (30 g or larger)
  • Anesthetic (Ketamine/Xylazine)
  • Cyanoacrylate adhesive (e.g., Krazy Glue)
  • Sterile 0.9% saline w/0.5% glucose
  • Sterile 0.9% saline
  • Liposyn III (Hospira)
  • 1‐ml syringe equipped with a 25‐G needle
  • PVC cannula: i.d. 0.20 × o.d. 0.50 mm (Critchley Electrical Products Pty)
  • Silicone feeding tube for duodenal infusion (0.5‐mm i.d, 0.8‐mm o.d.; Tyco Electronics)
  • Temperature‐controlled restraint cages for overnight recovery
  • Peristaltic pump; very low flow
  • Conical vials suitable for lymph collection

Basic Protocol 3: In Vivo Chylomicron Metabolism Assay

  Materials
  • Lymph fistula animals (either rats or mice; protocol 1, steps 1 to 9, or protocol 2, steps 1 to 8, respectively)
  • 5.0 mCi 3H‐labeled glycerol Trioleate (PerkinElmer)
  • 1.0 mCi 14C‐cholesterol (PerkinElmer)
  • Liposyn III (Hospira)
  • Triglyceride assay kit (recommended: Randox TG kits, Randox Laboratories)
  • Cholesterol assay kit (recommended: Infinity cholesterol kits, Thermo Electron)
  • Recipient rodents of the same breed, age, and sex as selected lymph fistula animals
  • Conical tubes suitable for lymph collection
  • Refrigerated centrifuge with Beckman 50.3 Ti rotor (Beckman Instruments)
  • Liquid scintillation counter with dual window (for 3H and 14C) capability
  • 1‐ml insulin syringes
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Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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