Genetic and Pharmacologic Models for Type 1 Diabetes

Edward H. Leiter1, Andrew Schile1

1 The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Unit Number:   
DOI:  10.1002/9780470942390.mo120154
Online Posting Date:  March, 2013
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Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by a partial or total insufficiency of insulin. The premiere animal model of autoimmune T cell‐mediated T1D is the NOD mouse. A dominant negative mutation in the mouse insulin 2 gene ( Ins2 Akita) produces a severe insulin deficiency syndrome without autoimmune involvement, as do a variety of transgenes overexpressed in beta cells. Pharmacologically induced T1D (without autoimmunity) elicited by alloxan or streptozotocin at high doses can generate hyperglycemia in almost any strain of mouse by direct toxicity. Multiple low doses of streptozotocin combine direct beta cell toxicity with local inflammation to elicit T1D in a male‐sex‐specific fashion. A summary of protocols relevant to the management of these different mouse models will be covered in this overview. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol.3:9‐19 © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: mice; NOD; diabetes; alloxan; streptozotocin; beta cells

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • The NOD Mouse
  • The Akita Mouse: A Model of Insulin‐Responsive Diabetes without Insulitis
  • Experimentally Induced Diabetes: Toxins
  • Experimentally Induced Diabetes: Knockouts and Transgenes
  • Experimentally Induced Diabetes: Viral Infection Models
  • Notes and Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

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Literature Cited

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