Mouse Anesthesia and Analgesia

Sean Adams1, Cholawat Pacharinsak1

1 Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Unit Number:   
DOI:  10.1002/9780470942390.mo140179
Online Posting Date:  March, 2015
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Abstract

Providing anesthesia and analgesia for mouse subjects is a common and critical practice in the laboratory setting. These practices are necessary for performing invasive procedures, achieving prolonged immobility for sensitive imaging modalities (magnetic resonance imaging for instance), and providing intra‐ and post‐procedural pain relief. In addition to facilitating the procedures performed by the investigator, the provision of anesthesia and analgesia is crucial for the preservation of animal welfare and for humane treatment of animals used in research. Furthermore, anesthesia and analgesia are important components of animal use protocols reviewed by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, requiring careful consideration and planning for the particular animal model. In this article, we provide technical outlines for the investigator covering the provision of anesthesia by two routes (injectable and inhalant), guidelines for monitoring anesthesia, current techniques for recognition of pain, and considerations for administering preventative analgesia. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: mouse; anesthesia; analgesia

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Basic Protocol 1: Injectable Anesthesia
  • Basic Protocol 2: Inhalant Anesthesia
  • Basic Protocol 3: Assessing Pain
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Injectable Anesthesia

  Materials
  • Mouse subject(s)
  • Injectable anesthetic (see Table 14.1.7900)
  • Eye lubricant
  • Pre‐warmed balanced fluids [lactated Ringer's solution (LRS); normal saline (0.9% NaCl); Normosol R]
  • Tared container for weighing mice
  • 1‐cc or 3‐cc syringe
  • 23‐G needles
  • Recovery cage (no bedding placed within, or home cage with paper towel on bedding; see Fig.  )
  • Heating pad (hot water recirculating), reusable gel pack, or heat lamp
Table 4.1.2   MaterialsInjectable Agents

Agent Dosage (mg/kg) Route Duration (min) at surgical plane of anesthesia Reference
Pentobarbital a Pentobarbital 40‐70 i.p. 10‐60 (Flecknell, ; Gardner et al., )
Ketamine/xylazine b Ketamine 80‐100 i.p., s.c. 15‐20 (Chaves et al., ; Fish et al., ; Xu et al., )
Xylazine 3‐10
Ketamine/dexmedetomidine c Ketamine 50‐80 i.p., s.c. 45 (Baker et al., ; Burnside et al., )
Dexmedetomidine 0.5‐1
Ketamine/xylazine d/cepromazine Ketamine 100Xylazine 2.5Acepromazine 2.5 i.p., s.c, 40‐60 (Arras et al., ; Fish et al., )
Propofol Propofol 12‐26 i.v. 5‐10 (Fish et al., )

 aPentobarbital is not recommended for survival surgeries.
 bXylazine may be reversed with atipamezole, 0.1‐1 mg/kg, given i.p./s.c./i.v.; reversal at 20 min or later with this combination.
 cDexmedetomidine may be reversed with atipamezole, 0.1‐1 mg/kg, given i.p./s.c./i.v.; reversal at 40 min or later with this combination.
 dXylazine may be reversed with atipamezole, 0.1‐1 mg/kg, given i.p./s.c./i.v.; reversal at 40 min or later with this combination.

Basic Protocol 2: Inhalant Anesthesia

  Materials
  • Mouse subject(s)
  • Ocular lubricant
  • Prewarmed balanced fluids (Plasma‐lyte A, LRS, Normosol‐R)
  • Anesthetic machine (J.A. Baulch & Associates; see Fig.  ) equipped with:
    • Volatile anesthetic
    • Activated charcoal scavenger
    • Oxygen supply (mobile or central)
  • Induction box (chamber; see Fig.  )
  • Facemask (see Fig.  )
  • Heat source: heating pad (hot water recirculating) or heat lamp
  • Recovery cage (no bedding placed within, or home cage with paper towel on bedding)
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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  Burnside, W.M., Flecknell, P.A., Cameron, A.I., and Thomas, A.A. 2013. A comparison of medetomidine and its active enantiomer dexmedetomidine when administered with ketamine in mice. BMC Vet. Res. 9:48.
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