Comprehensive Energy Balance Measurements in Mice

Lee Moir1, Liz Bentley1, Roger D. Cox1

1 Harwell Campus, Oxfordshire
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Unit Number:   
DOI:  10.1002/cpmo.13
Online Posting Date:  September, 2016
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Abstract

In mice with altered body composition, establishing whether it is food intake or energy expenditure, or both, that is the major determinant resulting in changed energy balance is important. In order to ascertain where the imbalance is, the acquisition of reproducible data is critical. Therefore, here we provide detailed descriptions of how to determine energy balance in mice. This encompasses protocols for establishing energy intake from home cage measurement of food intake, determining energy lost in feces using bomb calorimetry, and using equations to calculate parameters such as energy intake (EI), digested energy intake (DEI), and metabolisable energy intake (MEI) to determine overall energy balance. We also discuss considerations that should be taken into account when planning these experiments, including diet and sample sizes. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: bomb calorimetry; energy balance; energy expenditure; energy intake; fecal energy; food intake

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Strategic Planning
  • Basic Protocol 1: Home Cage Measurement of Food Intake
  • Basic Protocol 2: Fecal Energy Content Determined by Bomb Calorimetry
  • Basic Protocol 3: Energy Intake Equations
  • Basic Protocol 4: Energy Balance Equations
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
     
 
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Materials

Basic Protocol 1: Home Cage Measurement of Food Intake

  Materials
  • Appropriate mouse strain or line, preferably congenic
  • Mouse diet
  • Scale (±0.01 g for mice; ±0.001 g for food)
  • Method of recording weights (see Fig.  )

Basic Protocol 2: Fecal Energy Content Determined by Bomb Calorimetry

  Materials
  • Appropriate mouse strain or line
  • Mouse diet used for food intake study (see protocol 1)
  • White granulated sugar
  • Benzoic acid tablets
  • Scale (±0.01 g for mice; ±0.001 g for food; ±0.0001 g for bomb calorimeter samples)
  • Method of recording weights and energy output (see Fig.  )
  • Mouse cages with clean bedding
  • Absorbent lint‐free tissue
  • Blunt‐end forceps, for feces collection
  • Tube, for feces collection
  • Biosafety level 2 (BSL‐2) cabinet
  • Desiccator jar
  • Silica gel with moisture indicator
  • 55°C incubator
  • Bomb calorimeter setup (e.g., IKA, Parr Instrument Company, LECO Instruments) including the following components:
  • Stainless steel decomposition vessel
  • Holding surface for crucible
  • Crucible
  • Venting button
  • Cotton thread
  • Ignition wire
  • Combustion bag (optional)
NOTE: Only trained personnel competent in the operation of the bomb calorimeter and working with oxygen should undertake this protocol.

Basic Protocol 3: Energy Intake Equations

  Materials
  • Indirect calorimetry system (see Meyer et al., )
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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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