Principles of Signal Conditioning

Alan Finkel1, Richard Bookman2

1 Axon Instruments, Foster City, California, 2 University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Unit Number:  Unit 6.2
DOI:  10.1002/0471142301.ns0602s00
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
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Abstract

It is rare for biological, physiological, chemical, electrical, or physical signals to be measured in the appropriate format for recording and interpretation. Usually, a signal must be conditioned to optimize it for both of these functions. This overview describes the fundamentals of signal filtering, how to prepare signals for A/D conversion, signal averaging to increase the signal‐to‐noise ratio, line frequency pickup (hum), peak‐to‐peak and rms noise measurements, blanking, audio monitoring, testing of electrodes and the common‐mode rejection ratio.

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Fundamentals of Filtering
  • Preparing Signals for A/D Conversion
  • Averaging
  • Line‐Frequency Pick‐Up (HUM)
  • Peak‐to‐Peak and RMS Noise Measurements
  • Blanking
  • Audio Monitoring
  • Electrode Test
  • Common‐Mode Rejection Ratio
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

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Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Bell Telephone Laboratories. 1970. Transmission Systems for Communications. Western Electric Company, Technical Publications, Winston‐Salem, North Carolina.
   Horowitz, P. and Hill, W. 1988. The Art of Electronics. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Key References
   Hamming, R.W. 1977. Digital Filters. Prentice‐Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
   Tietze, U., Schenk, Ch. 1978. Advanced Electronic Circuits. Springer‐Verlag, Berlin.
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