Overview of Methodological Approaches to the Study of Ingestive Behavior

Bartley G. Hoebel1, Paul J. Wellman2

1 Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 2 Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Unit Number:  Unit 8.6A
DOI:  10.1002/0471142301.ns0806as03
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
GO TO THE FULL TEXT: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library


Some examples of procedures used by feeding researchers are discussed in this unit and include ablation of neural function; inhibition of behaviors by selective neurotoxins and antisense oligonucleotides; staining of sensory and motor mechanisms; electrical stimulation of the brain; local injection and microdialysis of nutrients, neurotransmitters, and drugs; autoradiography and in situ hybridization of neurotransmitters with their receptors; electrophysiological techniques for multi‐ and single‐unit recording of cells in the hypothalamus; and gene technology using inbred strains of genetically obese mice.

PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Table of Contents

  • Tissue Inactivation
  • Treatment with Selective Neurotoxins and Antisense Oligonucleotides
  • Staining
  • Electrical Stimulation
  • Local Injection and Microdialysis
  • Autoradiography and In Situ Hybridization
  • Electrophysiological Techniques
  • Gene Technology
  • Further Directions in Ingestive Behavior Research
  • Literature Cited
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library


PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library



Literature Cited

   Adachi, A., Shimizu, N., Oomura, Y., and Kobashi, M. 1984. Convergence of hepato‐portal glucose sensitive afferent signals to glucose sensitive units within the nucleus of the solitary tract. Neurosci. Lett. 46:215‐218.
   Ahlskog, J.E., Randall, P.K., Hernandez, L., and Hoebel, B.G. 1984. Diminished amphetamine anorexia and enhanced fenfluramine anorexia after midbrain 6‐hydroxydopamine. Psychopharmacology 82:118‐121.
   Akabayashi, A., Wahlestedt, C., Alexander, J.T., and Leibowitz, S.F. 1994a. Specific inhibition of endogenous neuropeptide Y synthesis in arcuate nucleus by antisense oligonucleotides suppresses feeding behavior and insulin secretion. Mol. Brain Res. 21:55‐61.
   Akabayashi, A., Watanabe, Y., Wahlestedt, C., McEwen, B.S., Paez, X., and Leibowitz, S.F. 1994b. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, its gene expression and receptor activity: Relation to circulating corticosterone in adrenalectomized rats. Brain Res. 665:201‐212.
   Anand, B.K. and Brobeck, J.R. 1951. Hypothalamic control of food intake. Yale J. Biol. Med. 24:123‐140.
   Anderson, B., Larsson, S., and Persson, N. 1960. Some characteristics of the hypothalamic “drinking centre” in the goat as shown by the use of permanent electrodes. Physiol. Scand. 50:140‐152.
   Avrith, D. and Mogenson, G.J. 1978. Reversible hyperphagia and obesity following intracerebral microinjections of colchicine into the ventromedial hypothalamus of the rat. Brain Res. 153:99‐107.
   Card, J.P., Rinaman, L., Lynn, R.B., Lee, B.‐H., Meade, R.P., Miselis, R.R., and Enquist, L.W. 1993. Pseudorabies virus infection of the rat central nervous system: Ultrastructural characterization of viral replication, transport and pathogenesis. J. Neurosci. 13:2515‐2539.
   Cytawa, J. and Teitelbaum, P. 1966. Spreading depression and recovery of subcortical functions. Acta Biol. Exper. 27:345‐353.
   Grossman, S.P. 1960. Eating or drinking elicited by direct adrenergic or cholinergic stimulation of hypothalamus. Science 132:300‐302.
   Hess, W.R. 1954. Diencephalon: Autonomic and extraparametal functions. In Functional Organization of the Diencephalon (J.R. Hughes, ed.) p. 180. Grune and Stratton, New York.
   Hoebel, B.G. 1988. Neuroscience and motivation: Pathways and peptides that define motivation. In Steven's Handbook of Experimental Psychology, 2nd ed. (R.C. Atkinson, R.J. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey, and R.D. Luce, edss.) pp. 547‐625. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
   Hoebel, B.G. 1997. Neuroscience and appetitive behavior research:Twenty‐five years. Appetite 29:in press.
   Jacoby, J.H. and Lytle, I.D. 1978. Serotonin neurotoxins. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 305:1‐702.
   Larkin, R.P. 1975. Effects of ventromedial hypothalamic procaine injections on feeding, lever pressing, and other behavior in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psych. 89:1100‐1108.
   Leibowitz, S.F. 1988. Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: Interaction between α2‐noradrenergic system and circulating hormones and nutrients in relation to energy balance. Neurosci.Biobehav. Rev 12:101‐109.
   Leibowitz, S.F. 1995. Brain peptides and obesity: Pharmacologic treatment. Obesity Res. 3:573s‐589s.
   Leibowitz, S.F. and Hoebel, B.G., In press. Behavioral neuroscience of obesity. In Handbook of Obesity (G.A. Bray, C. Bouchard, and W.P.T. James, eds.) pp. 313‐358. Marcel Dekker, New York.
   Lenard, L., Jando, G., Karadi, Z., Hajnal, A., and Sandor, P. 1988. Lateral hypothalamic feeding mechanisms: Iontophoretic effects of kainic acid, ibotenic acid and 6‐hydroxydopamine. Brain Res. Bull. 20:847‐856.
   Margules, D.L. 1970. β‐Adrenergic receptors in the hypothalamus for learned and unlearned taste aversions. J. Comp. Physiol. Psych. 73:13‐21.
   Montague, C.T., Farooqi, I.S., Whitehead, J.P., Soos, M.A., Rau, H., Wareham, C.P., Sewter, C.P., Digby, J.E., Mohammed, S.N., Hurst, J.A., Cheetham, C.H., Early, A.R., Barnet, A.H., Prins, J.B., and O'Rahilly, S. 1997. Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early‐onset obesity in humans. Nature 387:903‐908.
   Moran, T.H. 1996. Receptor subtype and affinity state underlying the satiety actions of cholecystokinin (CCK). In Drug Receptor Subtypes and Ingestive Behaviour (S.J. Cooper and P.G. Clifton, eds.) pp. 1‐18. Academic Press, London.
   Oomura, Y. 1986. Neurophysiology of control: Metabolic receptors. In Feeding Behavior Neural and Humoral Controls (R.C. Ritter, S. Ritter, and C.D. Barnes, eds.) pp. 235‐269. Academic Press, Orlando.
   Powley, T.L. and Berthoud, H. 1991. Neuroanatomical bases of cephalic phase reflexes. In Chemical Senses: Appetite and Nutrition (M.I. Friedman,M.G. Tordoff, and M.R. Kare, eds.) pp. 391‐404. Marcel Dekker, New York.
   Ritter, S., Scheurink, A., and Singer, L.K. 1995. 2‐Deoxy‐ D‐glucose but not 2‐mercaptoacetate increases FOS‐like immunoreactivity in adrenal medulla and sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Obesity Res 3:729s‐734s.
   Rolls, E.T. 1996. The orbitofrontal cortex. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 351:1433‐1443.
   Sakai, R.R., Ma, L.Y., He, P.F., and Fluharty, S.J. 1995. Intracerebroventricular administration of angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antisense oligonucleotides attenuate thirst in the rat. Regul. Pept. 59:183‐192.
   Schwartz, D.H., Hernandez, L., and Hoebel, B.G. 1990. Serotonin release in lateral and medial hypothalamus during feeding and its anticipation. Brain Res. Bull. 25:797‐802.
   Schwartz, M.W., Sipols, A.J., Marks, J.L., Sanacora, G., White, J.D., Scheurink, A., Kahn, S.E., Baskin, D.G., Woods, S.C., Figlewicz, D.P., and Porte, D., Jr., 1992. Inhibition by hypothalamic neuropeptide Y of gene expression by insulin. Endocrinology 130:3608‐3616.
   Scott, T.R. and Mark, G.P. 1987. The taste system encodes stimulus toxicity. Brain Res. 414:197‐203.
   Stellar, E. 1954. The physiology of motivation. Psychol. Rev. 61:5‐22.
   Ungerstedt, U. 1971. Aphagia and adipsia after 6‐hydroxydopamine induced degeneration of the nigro‐striatal dopamine system. Acta Physiol. Scand. 82:95‐122.
   Ungerstedt, U. and Hallstrom, A. 1987. In vivo microdialysis—a new approach to the analysis of neurotransmitters in the brain. Life Sci. 41:861‐864.
   Wellman, P.J., Davies, B.T., Morien, A., and McMahon, L. 1993. Modulation of feeding by hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus α1‐adrenergic receptors. Life Sci. 53:669‐680.
Key References
   Bray, G.A. and Ryan, D.H. (eds.) 1996. Molecular and Genetic Aspects of Obesity. The Pennington Center Nutrition Series, Vol.5. LSU Press, Baton Rouge, La.
  This volume of 37 chapters considers human disease states and animal models of obesity with specific focus on genetic and molecular aspects, including neural mechanisms underlying eating and body weight regulation.
   Cooper, S.J. and Clifton, P.G. (eds.) 1996. Drug Receptor Subtypes and Ingestive Behavior. Academic Press, London.
  This volume of 17 chapters deals with central and peripheral receptors involved in eating and energy balance, including receptors for CCK, serotonin, opioids, dopamine, NPY, glutamate, and benzodiazepines.
   Hoebel, 1997. See above.
  A review of procedures and progress in the neuroscience of ingestive behavior.
   Legg, C.R. and Booth, D.D. (eds.) 1994. Appetite: Neural and Behavioral Bases. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  A thorough treatment of neural and learning factors in feeding.
   Toates, F.M. and Rowland, N.E. (eds.) 1987. Feeding and drinking. In Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, Vol. 1. Elsevier, New York.
  A comprehensive treatment of issues, methods, and procedures for studies of ingestion in animals and humans.
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library