Basic Measures of Food Intake

Paul J. Wellman1, Lance R. McMahon1

1 Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Unit Number:  Unit 8.6B
DOI:  10.1002/0471142301.ns0806bs03
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
GO TO THE FULL TEXT: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Abstract

This unit describes a method for measuring the consumption of a pellet diet during a 30‐min testing session conducted during the late portion of the day. The procedure generates reliable and stable baseline measures of feeding, and is appropriate for assessing experimental manipulations that either enhance (e.g., injecting a peptide into the brain) or suppress feeding (e.g., systemic injections of amphetamine).

     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Table of Contents

  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Materials

Basic Protocol 1:

  Materials
  • Rat subjects
  • Solid‐pellet or other test diet (Purina, Harlan Teklad, or equivalent; see for discussion of considerations)
  • Individual rat cages
  • Top‐loading balance with range of 0 to 600 g, ±0.1 g
  • 80‐mm‐deep × 210‐mm‐diameter weighing bowl
  • Polycarbonate test cage or wire‐mesh hanging cage
  • Wire grid floor (Lab Products)
  • Cardboard spillage pad, cut to cover bottom of cage under wire grid
  • 500‐ml square French glass water bottles
  • No. 6 rubber stoppers
  • 110‐mm angled or straight stainless steel sipper tubes (Ancare)
  • Food hoppers
  • 50‐ to 100‐ml calibrated glass drinking tubes or graduated 50‐ml polycarbonate centrifuge tubes
  • Laboratory timer capable of timing ≥60‐min duration to 1‐sec resolution
  • Data sheets (e.g., see Fig. )
  • Test diet containers (e.g., glass petri dish glued to the base of a 4‐oz. glass baby food jar with Super Glue)
  • Forceps
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

   Castonguay, T.W. 1987. Diet selection: Principles, rules and suggestions. In Feeding and Drinking, Vol. 1: Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences (F.M. Toates and N.E. Rowland, eds.) pp. 429‐441. Elsevier, New York and Amsterdam.
   Cody, R.P. and Smith, J.K. 1987. Applied Statistics and the SAS Programming Language. North‐Holland Publishing, New York.
   Cooper, S.J. 1987. Drugs and hormones: Their effect on ingestion. In Feeding and Drinking, Vol. 1: Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences (F.M. Toates and N.E. Rowland, eds.) pp. 231‐262. Elsevier, New York and Amsterdam.
   Cooper, S.J. and Gilbert, D.B. 1985. Clonazepam‐induced hyperphagia in nondeprived rats: Tests of pharmacological specificity with Ro‐4864, Ro5‐3663, Ro15‐1788, and CGS 9896. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 22:753‐760.
   Corbit, J.D. and Stellar, E. 1964. Palatability, food intake and obesity in normal and hyperphagic rats. J. Comp. Physiol.Psychol. 58:63‐67.
   Davies, B.T. and Wellman, P.J. 1991. Effects of circadian cycle and time of testing on drug induced anorexia in rats. Behav. Pharmacol. 2:199‐204.
   Deutsch, J.A. 1990. Food intake: Gastric factors. In Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Vol.10: Neurobiology of Food and Fluid Intake (E.M. Stricker, ed.) pp. 151‐178. Plenum, New York.
   Grill, H.J. and Kaplan, J.M. 1990. Caudal brainstem participates in the distributed neural control of feeding. In Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology: Neurobiology of Food and Fluid Intake (E.M. Stricker, ed.) pp. 125‐150. Plenum, New York.
   Kirk, R.E. 1968. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences. Brooks Cole, Belmont, Calif.
   Leibowitz, S.F. and Myers, R.D. 1987. The neurochemistry of ingestion: Chemical stimulation of the brain and in vivo measurement of transmitter release. In Feeding and Drinking,Vol. 1: Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences (F.M. Toates and N.E. Rowland, eds.) pp. 271‐315. Elsevier, New York and Amsterdam.
   Morton, D.B. and Griffiths, P.H.M. 1985. Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress and discomfort in experimental animals and an hypothesis for assessment. Vet. Rec. 116:431‐436.
   Peters, R.H., Wellman, P.J., Gunion, M.W., and Luttmers, L.L. 1979. Acids and quinine as dietary adulterants. Physiol. Behav. 22:1055‐1059.
   Wellman, P.J. 1994. Laboratory Exercises in Physiological Psychology. Allyn and Bacon, Boston.
   Wellman, P.J. and Peters, R.H. 1978. Effects of cellulose‐adulteration on maintenance feeding behavior in rats with VMH lesions. Physiol. Psychol. 6:493‐496.
   Wellman, P.J., Davies, B.T., Morien, A., and McMahon, L. 1993. Modulation of feeding by hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus α1‐adrenergic receptors. Life Sciences 53:669‐680.
Key Reference
   Toates, F.M. and Rowland, N.E. (eds.) 1987. Feeding and Drinking, Vol. 1: Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  Discusses critical issues in the study of feeding and drinking.
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library