Transposon Ds‐Mediated Insertional Mutagenesis in Rice (Oryza sativa)

Yuan Hu Xuan1, Chul Min Kim2, Byoung Il Je2, Jing Miao Liu2, Tian Ya Li1, Gang‐Seob Lee3, Tae‐Ho Kim4, Chang‐Deok Han2

1 College of Plant Protection, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 2 Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 program), Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology Research Center (PMBBRC), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 3 Biosafty Division, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Science (NIAS), RDA, Jeonju, 4 Genomics Division, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Science (NIAS), RDA, Jeonju
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Plant Biology
Unit Number:   
DOI:  10.1002/cppb.20030
Online Posting Date:  September, 2016
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Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important consumed staple food for a large and diverse population worldwide. Since databases of genomic sequences became available, functional genomics and genetic manipulations have been widely practiced in rice research communities. Insertional mutants are the most common genetic materials utilized to analyze gene function. To mutagenize rice genomes, we exploited the transpositional activity of an Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) system in rice. To mobilize Ds in rice genomes, a maize Ac cDNA was expressed under the CaMV35S promoter, and a gene trap Ds was utilized to detect expression of host genes via the reporter gene GUS. Conventional transposon‐mediated gene‐tagging systems rely on genetic crossing and selection markers. Furthermore, the activities of transposases have to be monitored. By taking advantage of the fact that Ds becomes highly active during tissue culture, a plant regeneration system employing tissue culture was employed to generate a large Ds transposant population in rice. This system overcomes the requirement for markers and the monitoring of Ac activity. In the regenerated populations, more than 70% of the plant lines contained independent Ds insertions and 12% expressed GUS at seedling stages. This protocol describes the method for producing a Ds‐mediated insertional population via tissue culture regeneration systems. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: rice; Ac/Ds transposable elements; gene trap; mutagenesis; plant regeneration

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Basic Protocol 1: Ac/Ds Plasmid Construction and Agrobacterium‐Mediated Transformation
  • Basic Protocol 2: Selection of Transgenic Plants Homozygous for Ac and Ds
  • Basic Protocol 3: Regeneration of Transgenic Plants Carrying Ac/Ds Elements
  • Basic Protocol 4: Cloning Ds Flanking Sequences from Regenerated Plants
  • Basic Protocol 5: GUS Staining of Ds Insertional Mutants
  • Support Protocol 1: Growing Rice Plants on Paddy Soil
  • Reagents and Solutions
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
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Basic Protocol 1: Ac/Ds Plasmid Construction and Agrobacterium‐Mediated Transformation

  • Oryza sativa Dongjing cultivar seeds
  • Sterilization solution: 1.2% sodium hypochlorite containing one to two drops [per 50 ml] of Triton X‐100
  • NB medium (see recipe)
  • Agrobacterium strain (LBA4404)
  • pBI221 plasmids carrying the transposable element Ac or Ds (Chin et al., ; also see introduction to this protocol)
  • AAM medium (see recipe)
  • N6‐AS medium (see recipe)
  • 250 mg/liter cefotaxim (Sigma, cat. no. 1097909) in sterile H 2O
  • N6‐CH medium (see recipe)
  • N6‐7‐CH medium (see recipe)
  • N6S3‐CH‐I medium (see recipe)
  • N6S3‐CH‐II medium (see recipe)
  • Half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (see recipe)
  • Shaker
  • Additional reagents and equipment for electoporation (Shaw, )

Basic Protocol 2: Selection of Transgenic Plants Homozygous for Ac and Ds

  • Leaves of transgenic rice plants ( protocol 1)
  • Liquid N 2
  • Lysis buffer (see recipe)
  • 25:24:1 (v/v/v) phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (see recipe)
  • Isopropanol
  • 70% ethanol
  • TE buffer: 10 mM Tris·Cl (pH 8.0)/1 mM disodium EDTA (pH 7.5)
  • 10 g/liter RNase A stock solution
  • Restriction enzyme EcoRI
  • Denaturation solution: 1.5 M NaCl/0.5 M NaOH
  • Neutralization solution: 1 M Tris·Cl (pH 8.0)/1.5 M NaCl
  • 10× SSC (see recipe)
  • Pre‐hybridization solution (see recipe)
  • GUS DNA fragment, isolated from pCAMBIA1381 vector (
  • Random primers (available from most molecular biology suppliers)
  • Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase (available from most molecular biology suppliers)
  • Isotope: 32P‐dATP (BMS,
  • Probe synthesis buffers: 1× A buffer (90 mM HEPES (pH 6.6) and 10 mM MgCl 2), 1× B buffer (2 mM DTT, 3 mM dNTP (‐dATP), 0.2 mM BSA)
  • Washing solution I: 2 × SSC, 0.1% SDS
  • Washing solution II: 0.2 × SSC, 0.1% SDS
  • Four‐base restriction enzyme: NlaIII, HaeIII, or BfaI
  • T4 DNA ligase and ligation buffer (NEB)
  • rTaq polymerase buffer (TaKaRa)
  • rTaq polymerase (TaKaRa): 1 U per reaction
  • 10 mM dNTP mix (10 mM each dNTP)
  • Primers for iPCR amplification of Ds 5′ flanking sequences:
  • Primers for iPCR amplification of Ds 3′ flanking sequences:
  • Glass mortar and pestle
  • Microcentrifuge
  • UV transilluminator
  • Nylon membrane for blotting (Amersham)
  • UV cross‐linker
  • Hybridization bags
  • 65ºC hybridization oven
  • X‐ray film
  • 16ºC water bath
  • Additional reagents and equipment for agarose gel electrophoresis (Voytas, ), Southern blotting (Brown, ), and phenol extraction/ethanol precipitation of DNA (Moore and Dowhan, ), and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; Kramer and Coen, )

Basic Protocol 3: Regeneration of Transgenic Plants Carrying Ac/Ds Elements

  • Seeds of transgenic rice plants carrying Ac and Ds T‐DNAs ( protocol 1)
  • Sterilization solution: 1.2% sodium hypochlorite containing one to two drops [per 50 ml] of Triton X‐100
  • NB medium (see recipe)
  • N6‐7‐CH medium (see recipe)
  • N6S3‐CH‐I medium (see recipe)
  • N6S3‐CH‐II medium (see recipe)
  • Half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (see recipe)

Basic Protocol 4: Cloning Ds Flanking Sequences from Regenerated Plants

  • Tris⋅Cl, pH 8.3
  • KCl
  • MgCl 2
  • 0.2 mM dNTP mix: 0.2 mM each of dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP
  • Primers for TAIL‐PCR (Table 20.3.0)
  • Ac primers:
  • rTaq polymerase (TaKaRa)
  • Thermal cycler
  • Additional reagents and equipment for PCR (Kramer and Coen, ) and agarose gel electrophoresis (Voytas, )
Table 0.3.3   MaterialsPrimers for TAIL‐PCR

Primer names Sequences
Specific primers for the Ds 5′ end Ds5‐1 CCGTTTACCGTTTTGTATATCCCG
Specific primers for the Ds 3′ end Ds3‐1 CCGACCGGATCGTATCGGT
Arbitrary degenerate (AD) primers cggc1 GVCTYCGWSSGC

Basic Protocol 5: GUS Staining of Ds Insertional Mutants

  • GUS solution (see recipe)
  • Plants of interest
  • 70% ethanol
  • 50‐ml conical tubes (e.g., Corning Falcon)

Support Protocol 1: Growing Rice Plants on Paddy Soil

  • Rice seeds of interest
  • Soil (SeoulBio Inc., ‘BAROKER’)
  • Seedling trays (SeoulBio Inc.)
  • Dark plastic film
  • Lightweight white fabric
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