Overview of Length‐Tension Relationships in Isolated Tissue

Terry Kenakin1

1 Glaxo Wellcome Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Unit Number:  Unit 4.2
DOI:  10.1002/0471141755.ph0402s00
Online Posting Date:  May, 2001
GO TO THE FULL TEXT: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Abstract

This unit describes critical aspects of preparing isolated tissues for experiments to determine the response of specific receptors in the tissue to compounds in a surrounding fluid bath. The two most common methods of evaluating muscle function in pharmacological length‐tension relationships experiments is through measuring isometric and isotonic contraction. In an isometric contraction, which occurs in muscles when they exert force without changing length, the contractile element shortens and the stress transmitted onto the series elastic component is measured in newtons or grams, reflecting the increase in total tension. Isotonic contraction is the shortening of a muscle under a constant load. A key factor in the sensitivity of an isolated tissue receptor system is the resting length under which the muscle is mounted. A discussion of important issues relating to resting length is included.

     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Table of Contents

  • Isometric Contraction
  • Isotonic Recording
  • Auxotonic Recording
  • Conclusions
  • Figures
     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Materials

GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Litrature Cited
   Hill, A.V. 1938. The heat of shortening and dynamic constants of muscle. Proc. R. Soc. London B Biol. Sci. 1126:136‐154.
   Sonnenblick, E.H. 1962a. Implications of muscle mechanics in the heart. Fed. Proc. 21:975‐990.
   Sonnenblick, E.H. 1962b. Force‐velocity relations in mammalian heart muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 202:931‐939.
   Stephens, N.L., Meyers, J.L., and Cherniack, R.M. 1968. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, H+ ion, and bronchiole length‐tension relationships. J. Appl. Physiol. 25:376‐383.
   Stephens, N.L., Kroeger, E., and Mehta, J.A. 1969. Force‐velocity characteristics of respiratory airway smooth muscle. J. Appl.Physiol. 26:685‐692.
Key References
   Schliep, H.‐J., Doring, H.‐J., Classen, H.‐G., and Dehnert, H.O. (eds.) 1996. Muscle contractions. In Methods in Experimental Physiology and Pharmacology. BVM Biological Measuring Techniques, Vol. 1, pp. 160‐170. Biomesstechnik‐Verlag March Freiberg, Germany.
  Discussions of isotonic and auxotonic muscle recording.
   Stephens, N.L. and Van Niekerk, W. 1977. Isometric and isotonic contractions in airway smooth muscle. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 55:833‐838.
  A general treatment of length‐tension relationships.
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library