Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch

Djane B. Duarte1, Michael R. Vasko2, Jill C. Fehrenbacher3

1 Pharmacy Department, Health Sciences School, University of Brasília, 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, 3 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Unit Number:  Unit 5.6
DOI:  10.1002/0471141755.ph0506s72
Online Posting Date:  March, 2016
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The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti‐inflammatory drugs. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: inflammation; edema; carrageenan; air pouch; animal model; inflammatory mediator; PGE2; TNF alpha; oxidative stress

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Basic Protocol 1: AIR Pouch Model in the Rat
  • Alternate Protocol 1: Air Pouch Model in the Mouse
  • Reagents and Solutions
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
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Basic Protocol 1: AIR Pouch Model in the Rat

  • Rats weighing ∼150 g or mice weighing ∼20 to 25 g
  • Inhalation anesthetic (e.g., 5% [v/v] isoflurane; IsoFlo, Abbott)
  • 70% (v/v) ethanol
  • 0.9% (w/v) saline, sterile
  • 2% carrageenan solution (see recipe)
  • Lavage solution (see recipe)
  • ELISA kit(s) specific for inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF‐α, IL‐1β, IL‐6, IL‐10, prostaglandins; Thermo Fisher Scientific)
  • Isotonic phosphate‐buffered saline (PBS; Life Technologies, cat. no. 10010‐031), ice cold
  • Differential staining kit (e.g., Hemacolor; EMD Millipore, cat. no. 111674)
  • 5‐, 10‐, and 20‐ml syringes, sterile
  • 18‐, 20‐ and 23‐G, 1‐ to 1.5‐in. (2.5‐ to 3.8‐cm) needles, sterile
  • 0.2‐μm syringe filters, sterile
  • Anesthetic chamber or chemical fume hood
  • Animal hair clippers
  • Hemostat and scissors
  • 15‐ml conical centrifuge tubes, sterile
  • Transfer pipets, sterile
  • Cell counter or hemacytometer
  • Benchtop centrifuge (for 15‐ml conical tubes)
  • Additional reagents and equipment for euthanizing the animal (Donovan and Brown, )
NOTE: Besides carrageenan, other irritants such as zymosan or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can be used to induce inflammation in this model.CAUTION: Make certain that excess anesthetic does not vent into the room; use an appropriate anesthesia chamber apparatus or work in a chemical fume hood.
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Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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