Electrical Amygdala Kindling

N. Dürmüller1, R.D. Porsolt1

1 Porsolt and Partners Pharmacology, Boulogne Billancourts
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Unit Number:  Unit 5.33
DOI:  10.1002/0471141755.ph0533s22
Online Posting Date:  November, 2003
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This unit describes a method of electrical amygdala kindling in the rat. This procedure requires mastery of stereotaxic electrode implantation which is not covered in the current unit. Also, the investigator must have a sound knowledge of electronics and computing. The text gives instructions on how to render rats epileptic, how to determine the effects of compounds in kindled rats, and how to analyze the data. Results with three reference substances are illustrated. These substances are used in the clinic and give robust results in kindling.

Keywords: chronically implanted rats; electrical stimulation; complex partial seizures; kindling

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Table of Contents

  • Basic Protocol 1: Electrical Amygdala Kindling in the Rat
  • Support Protocol 1: Acquisition of Amygdala Kindling Data
  • Support Protocol 2: Data Analysis for Electrical Amygdala Kindling in Rats
  • Commentary
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
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Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Albertson, T.E., Joy, R.M., and Stark, L.G. 1984. A pharmacological study in the kindling model of epilepsy. Neuropharmacol. 23:1117‐1123.
   Albright, P.S. 1983. Effects of carbamazepine, clonazepam, and phenytoin on seizure threshold in amygdala and cortex. Exp. Neurol. 79:11‐17.
   Amano, K., Takamatsu, J., Ogata, A., Katsuragi, S., Miyazaki, C., Deshimaru, M., Sumiyoshi, S., and Miyakawa, T. 1999. Effect of dipotassium clorazepate on amygdaloid‐kindling and comparison between amygdaloid‐ and hippocampal‐kindled seizures in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 385:111‐117.
   Cain, D.P. 1983. Bidirectional transfer of electrical and carbachol kindling. Brain Res. 260:135‐138.
   Cain, D.P. 1987. Kindling by repeated intraperitoneal or intracerebral injection of picrotoxin transfers to electrical kindling. Exp. Neurol. 97:243‐254.
   Cain, D.P., Boon, F., and Corcoran, M.E. 1990. Involvement of multiple opiate receptors in opioid kindling. Brain Res. 517:236‐244.
   Ferland, R.J. and Applegate, C.D. 1999. Bidirectional transfer between electrical and flurothyl kindling in mice: Evidence for common processes in epileptogenesis. Epilepsia 40:144‐152.
   Gilbert, T.H. and Teskey, G.C. 2001. Conventional anticonvulsant drugs in the guinea‐pig kindling model of partial seizures: Effects of acute carbamazepine. Exp. Brain Res. 40:479‐485.
   Gomez, T., Rial, R., Bolanos, A., and Molina, M. 1988. The prophylactic effect of diphenylhydantoin in the kindling effect on reptiles (Gallotia galloti). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 90:203‐205.
   Ichimaru, Y., Gomita, Y., and Moriyama, M. 1987. Effects of clobazam on amygdaloid and hippocampal kindled seizures in rats. J. Pharmacobio‐Dyn. 10:189‐194.
   Kamei, C., Oka, M., Masuda, Y., Yoshida, K., and Shimizu, M. 1981. Effects of 3‐sulfamoylmethyl‐1,2‐benzisoxazole (AD‐810) and some antiepileptics on the kindled seizures in the neocortex, hippocampus and amygdala in rats. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn 249:164‐176.
   McIntyre, D.C., Poulter, M.O., and Gilby, K. 2002. Kindling: Some old and some new. Epilepsy Res. 50:79‐92.
   Ono, K., Baba, H., Mori, K., and Sato, K. 1980. EEG activities during kindling in frog. Int. J. Neurosci. 11:9‐15.
   Racine, R.J. 1972. Modification of seizure activity by electrical stimulation: II. Motor seizure. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 32:281‐294.
   Rundfeldt, C., Hönack, D., and Lüscher, W. 1990. Phenytoin potently increases the threshold for focal seizures in amygdala‐kindled rats. Neuropharmacol. 29:845‐851.
   Shin, R.S., Anisman, H., Merali, Z., and McIntyre, D.C. 2002. Changes in extracellular levels of amygdala amino acids in genetically fast and slow kindling rat strains. Brain. Res. 946:31‐42.
   Wada, J.A. and Hamada, K. 1999. Role of the midline brainstem in feline amygdaloid kindling. Epilepsia 40:669‐76.
   Wauquier, A., Ashton, D., and Melis, W. 1979. Behavioral analysis of amygdaloid kindling in beagle dogs and the effects of clonazepam, diazepam, phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, and flunarizine on seizure manifestation. Exp. Neurol. 64:579‐86.
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