DNA Microarrays: An Overview of Technologies and Applications to Toxicology

Helmut Zarbl1

1 N.I.E.H.S./University of Washington Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Toxicology
Unit Number:  Unit 1.4
DOI:  10.1002/0471140856.tx0104s09
Online Posting Date:  November, 2001
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DNA microarrays or chips can be used to simultaneously monitor the expression levels and/or genotypes of thousands of genes. The application of these techniques heralds a new era in toxicology research, where genotypes and toxicant‐induced expression signatures may be used to monitor cellular responses to different doses, to classify toxins on the basis of their mechanisms of action, to monitor exposures, and to predict individual variability in toxicant sensitivity. This unit reviews the current state of microarray technologies and discusses potential applications in toxicology, with emphasis on the strengths and limitations of the technologies.

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Table of Contents

  • Aims and Objectives
  • Development of DNA “Chips”: A Quantum Leap in Molecular Detection Technology
  • Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns Using Nucleic Acid Arrays
  • Application of DNA Chip Technology to Detect DNA Sequence Polymorphisms (SNPs)
  • Computational Biology
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
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Literature Cited

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Key References
  Supplement to volume 21 of Nature Genet. (1999) The Chipping Forecast.
  This supplement consists of fourteen comprehensive articles written by the leaders in the field of microarray technologies. The reviews provide detailed descriptions of all aspects of array technologies, including the chemistry and interactions occurring in the array surface, reviews of different technologies and applications, how to build and run an array facility, detailed protocols for hybridization, specific research applications, and overviews of data management and statistical analysis, including cluster analysis and data exploration.
Internet Resources
  A public database of all DNA sequence entries.
  A public database of all completed genomic sequences.
  A commercial Web site provided by Affymetrix of Santa Clara, California. The site provides detailed descriptions of chip production using photolithography and includes video of the process. Complete description of products, publications, etc. are also provided at this site.
  Web page provided by the laboratory of Patrick O. Brown at Stanford University. Provides detailed information on building a robotic arrayer and using cDNA arrays for expression analysis.
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