Associating Changes in the Immune System with Clinical Diseases for Interpretation in Risk Assessment

Jamie C. DeWitt1, Dori R. Germolec2, Robert W. Luebke3, Victor J. Johnson4

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, 2 Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 3 Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 4 Burleson Research Technologies, Morrisville, North Carolina
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Toxicology
Unit Number:  Unit 18.1
DOI:  10.1002/0471140856.tx1801s67
Online Posting Date:  February, 2016
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Abstract

This overview is an update of the unit originally published in 2004. While the basic tenets of immunotoxicity have not changed in the past 10 years, several publications have explored the application of immunotoxicological data to the risk assessment process. Therefore, the goal of this unit is still to highlight relationships between xenobiotic‐induced immunosuppression and risk of clinical diseases progression. In immunotoxicology, this may require development of models to equate moderate changes in markers of immune functions to potential changes in incidence or severity of infectious diseases. For most xenobiotics, exposure levels and disease incidence data are rarely available, and safe exposure levels must be estimated based on observations from experimental models or human biomarker studies. Thus, it is important to establish a scientifically sound framework that allows accurate and quantitative interpretation of experimental or biomarker data in the risk assessment process. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: immunotoxicity; immunosuppression; xenobiotic exposure

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Diseases Associated With Immunosuppression
  • Considerations for the Use of Human Data in Immunotoxicology Risk Assessment
  • Immunosuppression and Relationship to Infectious Disease
  • Immune System, Disease, and Life Stage
  • Experimental Animal Models
  • Social and Economic Impacts of Common Pathogens
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Disclaimer
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
  • Tables
     
 
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Materials

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Literature Cited

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