Inhalation Toxicology Methods: The Generation and Characterization of Exposure Atmospheres and Inhalational Exposures

Lung‐Chi Chen1, Morton Lippmann1

1 Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Toxicology
Unit Number:  Unit 24.4
DOI:  10.1002/0471140856.tx2404s63
Online Posting Date:  February, 2015
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Abstract

In this unit, the need for laboratory‐based inhalation toxicology studies, the historical background on adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, and the benefits of advance planning for the building of analytic options into the study design to maximize the scientific gains to be derived from the investments in the study are outlined. The following methods are described: (1) the generation and characterization of exposure atmospheres for inhalation exposures in humans and laboratory animals; (2) the delivery and distribution into and within whole‐body exposure chambers, head‐only exposure chambers, face‐masks, and mouthpieces or nasal catheters; (3) options for on‐line functional assays during and between exposures; and (4) options for serial non‐invasive assays of response. In doing so, a description beyond exposures to single agents and simple mixtures is presented, and included are methods for evaluating biological responses to complex environmental mixtures. It is also emphasized that great care should be taken in the design and execution of such studies so that the scientific returns can be maximized both initially, and in follow‐up utilization of archived samples of the exposure atmospheres, excreta, and tissues collected for histology. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: aerosols; airborne toxicants; animal exposures; atmosphere generation; complex mixtures; exposure chambers; exposure‐response; inhalation exposures; human exposures; particle size; extrapulmonary; telemetry; non‐invasive

     
 
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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Literature Cited
  • Figures
     
 
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Materials

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Figures

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Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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